This is accomplished by gasoline, naphtha, or benzine, and should not be attempted by the city dweller. In the country or suburbs, it should be done out of doors, far from any source of fire. Use a basin or tub, and immerse the article in the liquid, using as much as if water, lifting gently up and down. Rinse in a second portion. A suction washer may be used with large garments. Do not rub the fabric in the liquid. Lift, drain, and hang to dry. Keep the can in a safe place, safety being insured by coolness.

Powdered French chalk may be rubbed into delicate silk and wool, where there is a grease spot, or an oiliness from the skin. Leave for twenty-four hours, then shake, and brush out.

Ether and chalk may be used, but the ether affects some people unpleasantly, and dissolves out some delicate colors. Meal may also be used for cleaning wool, especially knitted fabrics, but it is difficult to shake out, and it needs blowing out on the clothesline.

Laboratory Management

A few lessons can be given in laundering where there is no complete equipment. Dish towels, doilies, and napkins can at least be washed in dishpans in the school kitchen, and a few irons provided. A few such lessons are helpful at least in developing an appreciation of what good laundering means at home and to the community.

The following order of practical work is suggested, when there is a school equipment. (From "A Laundry Manual," courtesy of Balderston and Limerick.)

First Course

I. Make Javelle water, detergent, soap, and give general notes. II. Removal of stains. Wash. Table linen.

1 tablecloth for every four students. 1 napkin for each student. 1 doily for each student.

III. Wash.

Bed linen.

1 sheet for every four students.

1 pillow case for each student. Iron. Tablecloth, napkins, and doilies.

IV. Wash.

Drawers and stockings. Iron.

Sheets and pillow cases. V. Wash.

Towels and plain colored pieces. Iron. Drawers and stockings. VI. Wash.

Nightdress and corset covers. Iron. Towel and colored clothes. VII. Wash.

Flannel underwear. Iron. Nightdress and corset covers. VIII. Wash.

Embroideries. Iron. Embroideries and flannels.

Second Course

I. Wash.

White skirts. Wash and iron. Doilies and drawn work. II. Wash.

Shirtwaists. Iron. White skirts.

III. Wash.

Knit and crocheted articles and flannel waists. Iron.


IV. Wash.

Woolen dress goods, down quilt, and blankets. Iron. Flannel waists. V. Wash.

Collars and cuffs, child's dress, ribbons. Finish quilt and blankets. VI. Wash. Silks. Iron. Silks, collars and cuffs, child's dress. VII. Wash.

Laces, lace curtains. VIII. Wash.

Collarettes, stocks, handkerchiefs. Iron.

Collarettes, stocks, handkerchiefs. Finish lace curtains.


1. Why is ironing less necessary than washing?

2. What are the chief cleansing and purifying agents?

3. Explain the difference between hard and soft water. Remedies for hardness?

4. What is soap, and how does it act?

5. Why do we blue and starch clothes?

6. Describe the methods of forcing water through clothes.

7. Why are clothes boiled?

8. What are some of the labor saving devices and methods in washing and ironing?

9. Why must clothes be sorted according to fabrics?

10. What are the essentials of a good washing machine?

11. Make a list of the cleansers and chemicals necessary to have on the laundry shelf.

12. Obtain price lists and estimate the cost of simple but sufficient laundry equipment.

13. Obtain a laundry list from a commercial laundry. Make a list of the articles washed at home, and compare cost with the cost of putting out clothes, estimating fuel, cleansers, labor, and some wear and tear of apparatus.