Fat is necessary for the saute, and for deep fat frying. For deep fat frying several prep-arations are made from cottonseed oil that are agreeable to use and of moderate price.

Lard has been the most commonly used, but many people object to the flavor. Beef drippings should be saved and kept cool in covered jelly glasses. These drippings are useful for browning vegetables, meatballs, and in pan-broiling if a small amount of additional fat is necessary.

When deep fat frying is used, great pains must be taken to see that the fat is sufficiently hot in order that the food material may not soak fat, and the cooked food must be kept hot when the fat is draining off on absorptive paper. The best fats for this purpose are the vegetable oils. The refined cottonseed oils now on the market are excellent. For details of use see page 120. Keep a box of sand to pour into it, if the kettle of fat takes fire. Never pour water into blazing fat.