Beef fat, as it occurs with lean, is a digestible fat. If thoroughly browned in the cooking process, it is most palatable, and the taste for it should be cultivated. In gravy, it may be used with potato, instead of butter. Fat tried out from suet, may

Fig. 46.   Composition of fat foods.

Fig. 46. - Composition of fat foods.

A. Fowler, Photographer.

A. Fowler, Photographer.

Fig. 47. - 100-Calorie portions of fat foods.

No.

Kind

Weight of Portion ounces

1.

Cream (extra rich, 40% fat) .................................

. . 0.9

2.

Olive oil ..............................................................

0.4

3.

Butter ................................................................

0.5

4.

Oleomargarine .................................................

0.5

5.

Suet .................................................................

... 0.5

6.

Bacon ..............................................................

...... 0.6

be used in place of butter as an ingredient in some puddings, and even in batter mixtures. It may also be used with vegetables when the price of butter is prohibitive. See Fig. 47.

Bacon is a digestible and agreeable form of fat, but it is not so cheap as beef fat, though cheaper than butter.

Fat pork is lower in price than bacon, and can be assimilated by vigorous people, especially those living out of doors.

Cream is one of the most delicious fatty food materials, and is digestible, but ranks with butter and bacon as to cost. While it is not a cheap food, it is not such an extravagance when moderately used as some people suppose, who have not worked out the problem. Usually the most economical source of cream is to take it from the top of the bottle of milk. The remaining partially skimmed milk may be used at table or in cooking or for making cottage cheese.

Butter is a digestible fat, ranking at present among the more expensive food materials.

Watchfulness is necessary with both cream and milk that cleanliness and quality may be insured.

Butter Substitutes

These are made from beef fat and other edible fats and oils, and are much less expensive than butter. They may be used in cooking with good result. The usual trade names are butterine, or oleomargarine, or some word similar to these. Oleomargarine has the same food value as butter at lower cost, but lacks fine flavor.

Olive Or Sweet Oil

The fat content of olive oil is one hundred per cent, its fuel value being equal to that of lard. See Fig. 46. It is made in Italy, France, Spain, and California, the oils from the different countries differing somewhat in flavor. The cheaper grades are sometimes adulterated with corn oil or cottonseed oil, which have the same food value but should, of course, be sold under their own names and not at olive oil prices. An American firm is now manufacturing olive oil in Spain; this and the California olive oil are of high grade. Italian oil by the gallon is of good quality, and usually somewhat less expensive than the French. It is a costly food material, but valuable in the dietary. Never buy it in small bottles, as this adds greatly to the cost. The most economical method is to purchase by the gallon in a tin can. If kept cool, it will not deteriorate except very slowly. Always wipe off the mouth of the bottle or can before pouring out the oil.