Hard coal will not ignite until it is thoroughly heated through and through, and as small coal will not require as much wood to heat it up as large, it is important, where the supply of kindling wood is limited, that the pieces of coal which touch the wood should be small. As wood in cities is more expensive than coal, economy suggests the use of as little as practicable. The coal, then, for kindling, should not only be as small as a pigeon's egg, called " chestnut coal" by the dealers, but to economize the wood, the pieces should not be over four inches long, so that they can be laid compactly, and the heat more concentrated on a given point of coal, and thus the sooner heat it through. If the wood is thus placed, and is covered with one layer of chestnut coal, it will redden with great rapidity and certainty. Now cover the reddened coal with another layer or two, and in a minute or two put on the larger size. Put a handful of shavings or paper in a grate compactly, then some splinters of dry wood, not larger than the little finger, and outside of that a layer of pieces an inch or more thick and three or four long; apply a match to the paper, and while it is catching put on small coal as above, and there will not be a failure during the winter, nor a growl in the household, for the want of a good and timely fire. To lessen a coal fire, press it from the top, so as to make the mass more compact, giving less room for air. To revive it, lay on small pieces tenderly; put on the blower, and when red, add larger pieces, and riddle out from below. Heaping on more coal, or letting out the ashes below, will certaily put out a low coal fire.