Caramel

Put sugar in a smooth iron pan over a hot fire and stir constantly with an old wooden spoon until melted to a light brown syrup. Scrape off any sugar that forms in lumps. When all is melted add an equal amount of boiling water and simmer a few moments until blended into a thick syrup.

A quantity of this may be made at once and kept on hand to flavor and sweeten custards and ice cream, or to serve as a sauce with other puddings.

If it should happen to brown beyond the shade of good maple syrup, let it go a little further until the sweet flavor would be lost. Then dissolve as above and bottle to use for coloring soups and meat gravies.

Syrup

Combine equal quantities of water and sugar in a saucepan and stir until dissolved. Boil five to ten minutes until only slightly reduced in quantity. Can while hot in small jars and keep on hand to sweeten fruit drinks or ices as the 'dissolving of the sugar in cold liquids is a slow and unsatisfactory process.

Fondant

In an agate saucepan put one cup granulated sugar, about one-sixteenth of a teaspoon of cream of tartar - a bit the size of a small pea - and one-half cup of hot water. Stir till sugar is dissolved, then cover and cook without stirring. Skim and wipe the sides of the pan if necessary. Boil about ten minutes or till 238 to 240 degrees F., when it will form a soft ball in cold water. Turn into a greased bowl or platter and cool slightly. It will grain if stirred while too warm. Beat and knead till a smooth, creamy mass. If it hardens too rapidly dip the hands in water and continue the kneading.

Pack away in covered dish for a day or longer, then shape as desired. Colors and flavors must be very concentrated. By combination with chocolate, dates, figs, nuts, etc., a great variety of candies may be secured. This fondant is a very satisfactory frosting for cake and may be kept on hand. Warm it over water until it can be spread on the cake.

Boiled Frostings

Cook one cup of sugar with one-half cup of water or less, and a bit of cream of tartar until it will thread, not quite reaching the soft ball stage. Then pour slowly on the stiffly beaten white of one Egg and continue beating until cool enough to spread. Much depends on the moisture in the atmosphere as well as the dryness of the cake.

For a still softer frosting a larger proportion of egg white is used. This may be varied with different flavors and colors.