Broiled Meats, Chops, Steaks

The meat should be cut in convenient pieces, and some of the bone, gristle and fat removed. Sections one inch thick will be more juicy than thinner ones. Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, grease the broiler or pan with a piece of the fat, or brush melted fat over the meat. Place the meat where intense heat will reach it at first, under the gas flame, or in a hot pan on top of the stove, or over hot coals. Turn often at first, every half minute if directly over the coals, until well seared and browned on both sides, then move it farther away from the fire so the heat may penetrate to the center without burning the outside.

As the meat is seared on the surface the juices are driven . towards the center, and expanding with the heat tend to make the surface of the meat puff outward. This is very • apparent between the wires of a double broiler and probably is the best indication that the meat is cooked.

Steaks one inch thick should cook in five or six minutes to be rare, eight or ten minutes to be well done, the time varying according to the method of cooking and intensity of heat. Mutton chops may be served rare, lamb usually well done, veal and pork always must be thoroughly cooked..

Broiled meats should be served at once on a hot dish and with slight seasoning beside their own juices. If kept hot the cooking is continued too far.

Fish and chicken may be partially broiled and then finished in the oven. Apply the direct heat mainly to the cut inside surface, as the skin burns easily.

Roast Meats

Trim, wipe, score the fat portion and rub salt into that, place on rack in pan, sprinkle flour all over it, put skin side down. Have oven very hot at first to sear outside quickly to prevent escape of juice, then 'reduce heat. Baste occasionally as needed with the fat which cooks out into the pan, and turn the roast over to cook it evenly.

If there is danger of burning put some water in the pan after the meat is seared, but this is not necessary if heat of oven is lowered.

A sirloin or rib roast weighing five pounds will require about one hour, or longer, if it is to be well done. A surer rule for time of cooking is to allow fifteen minutes for each inch in thickness, or twenty minutes if wanted well done.

Braised Beef

Use a thick section of the lower part of the round, two to four pounds. Trim, wipe and sprinkle with flour, season with salt and pepper. Brown under the gas or in hot fat. Put in casserole, partly cover with water or brown or tomato sauce. Cover closely and cook in very slow oven three to five hours.

Meat Stew

Neck or breast of lamb, of veal or inexpensive cuts of beef may be used in this way. Cover bones with cold water and heat slowly. Cut meat in convenient pieces, roll in flour seasoned with salt and pepper, Fry bits of fat, then brown sections of prepared meat and onion if desired. Put meat in kettle with bones when water is hot.

When nearly tender add carrot, turnip, peppers, or celery cut in small shapes about one cup each to one pound of meat.

Potatoes pared and cut in quarters may be added 20 to 30 minutes before serving, and dumplings 10 minutes before serving.

Escalloped Fish or Meat

Equal measures of cooked minced meat, bread crumbs and white or tomato sauce; or, for one measure of meat, half as much sauce and one-fourth as much buttered crumbs. (Boiled rice or macaroni may be used instead of crumbs.)

Remove all uneatable portions from meat and mince or chop. Put in layers in a buttered dish, having crumbs for the last. Bake until heated through and brown on top.

Fish or Meat Loaf, or Timbales

Remove skin, gristle and bone from meat or fish and mince fine. Combine with an equal quantity of bread crumbs or stuffing from a baked fish or roast fowl, season as desired, moisten with milk or stock. Add one beaten egg or more to each pint of the mixture. Pack in buttered moulds, steam or bake until firm in center. Turn out and serve with sauce.

Meat Loaf in Rice

Line a mould with well-cooked rice. Fill with the meat prepared as above. Cover with rice. Steam an hour. Serve with tomato sauce.

Fish Balls

In a stew pan put one pint potatoes, pared and quartered, and one cup salt cod fish which has been picked apart in cold water. Cover with boiling water and cook until the potatoes are soft. Drain in a colander till no water can be shaken out. Return to pan, mash thoroughly, add salt if needed, a shake of pepper, one teaspoon butter, one raw egg, and beat all together. Shape on a spoon or in small balls and fry in deep fat, hot enough to brown them in one. minute. Drain on soft paper.