Sugar

Shortening

Liquid

Yeast Cake

Flour

Eggs

Bread.....

1 tsp.

1/2 oz. +

i cup

1/4 to 1

3 cups

• • •

Muffins. .. .

1 tbs.

1/2 oz.

1 cup

1/4to 1

2 cups

1 +

Rolls

1 tbs.

1 oz.

1 cup

1/2 to 1

3 cups

• •

Fancy Rolls.

2 tbs.

2 OZ.

1 cup

1/4 to 1

3 cups +

1 +

Buns......

1/2 cup

2 OZ.

1 cup

1/2 to 1

3 cups+

• • ••

Coffee Cake

1/4 cup

2 OZ.

1/2 cup

1/4 to 1

2 Clips

2 +

Bread - Short Process

For each loaf, use one cup of milk scalded or half milk and half hot water, or all warm water, one-half teaspoon of salt and of sugar, one-half or more compressed yeast cake, softened with luke warm water, and about three cups of bread flour. Mix well and kneed until the dough is smooth and springy. The dough should now be warm. Let rise till double, shape, put in pan and let rise again and bake. Or this amount of dough may be shaped into a dozen or two dozen small rolls before final rising.

Entire Wheat Bread

Scald one cup of milk; in it melt one teaspoon of butter and half a teaspoon each of sugar and salt. When lukewarm, add half a cake of compressed yeast, softened in one-fourth cup of warm water. Stir in between two and three cups of flour to make a dough stiff enough to hold its shape. Mix thoroughly with a knife, but do not knead it until after it has risen to double its bulk, then shape into small loaves, let rise until double in size, bake in hot oven about half an hour.

One-fourth cup of molasses may be used in place of the sugar if preferred.

Rolls - Long Process

For rolls or two loaves of bread, put into the mixing bowl one tablespoon of butter or lard, one tablespoon of sugar, one teaspoon of salt and one pint of scalded milk. When lukewarm, add one quarter yeast cake softened in water and three cups of flour. Cover and let rise. In the morning, add to this sponge about three cups of flour to make thick enough to knead. Let rise till double, shape, put in pans, rise again and bake.

Muffins : Add two or three eggs to the sponge, but no more flour. Bake in muffin pans.

Coffee Cake

Work into one pint of light dough, two-thirds cup of white sugar, one Egg, and two ounces of melted butter. Mix thoroughly to a creamy, smooth batter by beating,

Pour into shallow pan and let rise again. Sift sugar and cinnamon over the top and bake in a quick oven. Serve warm.

Use of Stale Bread

Bread Cases

Cut slices of bread two inches thick and three inches long. Remove part of crumbs from the center, leaving a hollow space. Spread with butter and brown in the oven.

Croutons

Cut stale bread into slices about one-third inch thick and then in cubes. Bake in moderate oven until golden brown.

Dry Crumbs

Crusts remaining from croutons, etc., should be dried in the oven, rolled and sifted, the fine ones used for croquettes, etc., the coarser for stuffing or escalloped dishes.

Cracker crumbs may be used in the same way.

Buttered Crumbs

Melt butter and stir in crumbs till the butter is evenly distributed.

One ounce of butter for one cup of crumbs is a fair proportion. Buttered crumbs seasoned and moistened are used for stuffing peppers, tomatoes, fish, poultry, etc.

Filling for Fish or Fowl

One cup of crumbs will serve for a small fish or chicken, while a large fowl or turkey will require two or three. With each cup of crumbs blend one ounce or more of butter or chopped fat salt pork, one teaspoon parsley or mixed herbs, one-half teaspoon salt and a little pepper. Moisten with milk, water or stock. For fish season also with lemon and onion juice.

Mashed potato or chestnuts may be used instead of crumbs.

Fat - To Try Out and Clarify

Cut the fat - beef suet or flank fat - in small pieces, removing skin and bits of lean meat. Cover with cold salted water and leave in a cold place for several hours. Drain off the water, and if possible soak again, and drain. Cook slowly in moderate oven or in upper part of the double boiler till the fat has melted and the scraps are crisp, but not brown. Strain and cool. Slices of raw potato or pieces of charcoal cooked in the fat before straining will absorb any impurities.

Beef, pork and chicken fat may be combined. Surplus fat from roast beef, corned beef, etc., may be added.

Such fat may be used for shortening muffins, gingerbread, etc., for greasing pans, for some sauces and soups, or for deep frying. Mutton fat may be prepared to add to fry fat.

Fat from bacon, ham or sausages should be reserved for hashes or warming over potatoes.