Biscuit

Two cups sifted flour, three teaspoons of baking powder, one-half teaspoon of salt; sift together, rub in one tablespoon of shortening - butter, oleo, lard, cottolene or drippings. Mix to a soft dough with about two-thirds cup of milk or water. Turn onto a floured board, roll and pat gently to three-quarters inch thick, cut and bake. Pastry flour make more delicate biscuits than bread flour.

Dumplings for Stews : Omit shortening, add milk until dough may be dropped from the spoon into boiling stew. Cover tightly and cook rapidly 10 minutes.

Shortcake: Rub in one-fourth cup of butter in biscuit mixture. Cut like biscuit for individual shortcakes or use a square pan and divide with knife clipped in melted butter so that portions may separate readily after baking.

Use shortcake mixture for covering to meat pies, apple dumplings, etc.

Muffins

Two cups of sifted flour, two teaspoons of baking powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar; sift and add one tablespoon of shortening melted, one beaten egg and one cup of milk. Beat together thoroughly and bake in a quick oven.

Blueberry Muffins: Use a little less milk in muffin mixture and add one cup of blueberries and a little more sugar. Chopped apples or other fruit may be used in same way.

Tea Muffins: In the above muffin mixture use one-fourth cup of sugar and of butter and add two more eggs.

Drop Cakes

One and one-half cups of graham flour, one-half teaspoon each of salt and soda, and one-fourth cup of brown sugar; sift together and mix with three-fourths cup of thick sour milk into stiff batter which drop from a spoon onto a greased pan or in heated gem pans and bake quickly 12 to 15 minutes. Sweet milk and two teaspoons of baking powder may be substituted as well as rye and other flours.

Cereal Gems

Use even quantities of flour and softened cooked breakfast food, one teaspoon of baking powder to a cup of material; add sufficient milk to make a batter which will drop from the spoon. Mix thoroughly and bake in hot buttered gem pans.

Boston Brown Bread

Sift together one cup of cornmeal, one cup of rye meal, or entire wheat flour, one teaspoon of soda, one-half teaspoon salt. Mix with one-half cup molasses and one cup sour milk. If not soft enough to smooth out in the bowl, add a little water. Put in greased tins with tight cover and steam three hours or more.

Corn Cake

Use one cup cornmeal, one cup flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, one tablespoon of sugar, three teaspoons baking powder; sift together and add one egg, one cup of sour milk and one tablespoon of shortening. Bake in pan 20 to 30 minutes, according to thickness, or in muffin pans.

The cornmeal may be scalded with an equal volume of boiling water; let cool, and more shortening, sugar and two more eggs may be added.

Griddle Cakes

Sift together two cups of flour, three teaspoons of baking powder and one teaspoon each of salt and sugar; add two eggs well beaten and one and one-half cups of milk grad--ually and two tablespoons of melted butter. Beat well and add more milk until the batter is as thick as thick cream. Beat vigorously before each frying.

Fry on hot griddle, grease with rind of pork or ham. Drop batter from end of the spoon, making circular cakes. Turn when full of bubbles.

Waffles

Are cooked on a waffle iron, using the griddle cake mixture with an extra egg added.

Plain Cake ("Lightning" Cake)

Place the flour sifter in the mixing bowl and put in it one and one-half cups of flour, three-fourths cup of fine granulated sugar, two level teaspoons of baking powder, one-half teaspoon of salt. Sift into the bowl.

In the measuring cup, melt one-fourth cup of butter (or oleo), break in two eggs, fill up the cup with milk. Add one-half teaspoon flavoring extract or saltspoon of spice. Mix with the dry ingredients and beat well two or three minutes. Bake in sheet or greased muffin tins in quick oven.

Variations : Add two tablespoons of cocoa, or an ounce of melted chocolate. Use one cup caramel or maple syrup in place of sugar. Leave out part of the sugar for Cottage Pudding.

Cookies

Cream, one-half cup of butter, adding gradually one cup of sugar; add one egg and beat well. Now mix in, a little at a time, one-third cup of milk and two cups of flour sifted with two teaspoons of baking powder. Add more flour, from one to two cups, depending on the absorbing power of the flour, to make a soft dough, which roll out thin, and cut with cookie cutter in fancy shapes. Bake in a quick oven 10 minutes.

Variations: Before all the flour is added, divide into four portions; to one add one teaspoon of lemon extract, to another one-half cup of desiccated cocoanut; one-half ounce of chocolate melted, or a teaspoon of cocoa, sifted in with a little flour; to the fourth, one teaspoon of mixed spice and one-half cup of chopped raisins, etc. Or flavor the portions with ginger, almond with chopped almonds on top, or with dates, figs, nuts. Or use less flour and drop from a spoon for a soft thick cake.

Gingerbread

Two cups of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt and of soda, one teaspoon of ginger; sift together and mix with one cup of molasses and one-half cup of hot water in which two tablespoons of fat is melted. Bake in a moderate oven twenty minutes or more,

Doughnuts.*

Sift together four cups of flour, one teaspoon of salt, three teaspoons of baking powder, one-half teaspoon of mixed spice and one cup of sugar. Mix with one egg and one cup of milk.

Sour milk and soda may be used in place of baking powder. For richer doughnuts, two eggs and one tablespoon of butter may be used.

Plain Pastry.*

Sift two cups of flour with one-half teaspoon of salt and cut in with a knife, one-fourth cup or two ounces of shortening. Mix with about one-half cup of ice water into a stiff dough. Roll out and spread with one ounce' of butter, fold and add a second ounce of butter in the same way, making one-half cup of shortening in all. For upper crusts more shortening may be rolled in if desired. Keep every- thing as cool as possible. The lightness of the pastry depends on the amount and coolness of the air enclosed and the flakiness on the number of layers of fat and dough produced by folding and rolling.