Tetany. Tetany differs from tetanus in consisting of a muscular stiffness occurring in paroxysms and affecting the hands and feet. It occurs chiefly in rickety children or those suffering from digestive derangement.

Treatment consists in correcting any diarrhoea or dyspepsia, and altering the diet and hygienic conditions of the patient.

Threadworms. (See Worms.)

Throat, Sore. The throat is a cavity at the back of the mouth which communicates with the nasal cavity above, and behind with the larynx, or organ of voice, which extends to the trachea leading down to the bronchi and lungs.

There are various affections of the throat characterised by the symptom "sore throat." It is one of the commonest ailments that exist. Common throat affections may be divided approximately into the following groups:

1. Sore throat associated with one of the acute fevers, such as diphtheria, influenza, or scarlet fever.

2. Catarrhal pharyngitis, or simple inflammatory throat.

3. Tonsilitis, or inflammation of the tonsils. The sore throats associated with the infectious fevers are dealt with under these diseases.

Catarrhal pharyngitis is a simple inflammation of the lining membrane of the pharynx and soft pallet. It may be very mild, causing only dryness and discomfort in swallowing. Or it may be more severe, with ulceration and rise of temperature.

The mild form is often called relaxed throat or relapsing sore throat. Speakers, actors, clergy, teachers often suffer from this type of sore throat. The more serious variety is apt to become more or less chronic. Many people say that when they are run down, or if the weather is damp, their throat troubles them. In children a chronic sore throat of this type is often associated with adenoids.

Causes Of Relaxed Throat

1. Unhygienic surroundings, such as occur in houses where the drainage is defective, or where the ventilation is bad, often cause this type of sore throat. Dust will give rise to it in the same way, from irritation.

2. Depression of the general health will bring on sore throat in many people.

3. Gouty and rheumatic conditions are associated with throat trouble. Another cause is living too well, which is, of course, associated with gout.

4. Certain local conditions, such as adenoids, or anything producing nasal obstruction, will cause frequent sore throats.

5. Chronic sore throat is often associated with anaemia in young people.

6. Excessive smoking and continual misuse of the voice, especially if associated with damp, will cause pharyngitis.


When this form of sore throat is acute, the treatment is the same as for Tonsilitis (which see).

In the chronic sore throat, anything likely to cause irritation of the throat, such as smoking, alcohol, exposure to dust, must be avoided. The general health should be kept up by exercise, diet, baths, and the patient must live and sleep in the fresh air as much as possible. Over-coddling of the throat should be avoided. Constantly wrapping the throat up in mufflers and furs increases its delicacy. Keep the throat as free as possible, and bathe the neck and chest every morning with cold water. A morning gargle consists of a pinch of salt in a wineglassful of water is useful as a domestic remedy, and lozenges containing carbolic acid and glycerine act as an antiseptic and tonic to the part. When the condition is chronic, a doctor should be consulted. Any cause, such as adenoids or chronic obstruction of the nose passages, must be removed, and anaemia, rheumatism, or gout associated with sore throat, require special treatment.