Purposes of Freezing

The purpose of freezing is the extraction of heat from food in order to prepare an appetizing and cooling dish that will be refreshing to the body.

The degree of heat at which food is served has much to do with making the food palatable, and when the temperature of the food is reduced to the freezing point there is a decided change in flavor. The proportion of sugar and flavoring used in a dish which is to be prepared by freezing must be about double that used in other desserts, as the organs of taste are less sensitive when chilled.

Principles of Freezing

The principle of freezing is extraction of heat through the melting of ice and the subsequent melting of salt - a double action.

Salt has a strong affinity for water - thus salt is used with the ice, causing it to melt; but heat is necessary to change the ice from a solid to a liquid, and heat is drawn from the nearest substance, hence the mixture to be frozen is packed in a vessel made of some substance which is a good conductor (a metal pail)and the ice is surrounded by a non-conducting material (a wooden pail) so that the heat will not be drawn from the surrounding air.

Value of Frozen Dishes

Frozen dishes are refreshing to the body but retard digestion by lowering the temperature of the stomach. They are less harmful if used between meals because then they do not interfere with the digestion of other foods. They are often valuable in sickness in helping to cool the temperature of the body.

Ice creams are all rich and nourishing. but fruit ices are merely refreshing to the body.

Frozen dishes are used as appetizers, as a relish with meat or game, or as a dessert.

Utensils necessary for preparing frozen dishes are: - an ice pick, burlap bag and mallet or ice chopper, patent freezer, cup or dipper to handle the ice, burlap and newspaper to cover the freezer.

Methods of Preparing Frozen Dishes

Ices are made from sweetened fruit juice. They are made more smooth by cooking the water and sugar together to a thin syrup. If too much sugar is used the mixture is hard to freeze; if too little, it is coarse and rough. (1 1/2 cups sugar to a quart of water, boil 5 minutes and strain.) Frozen fruit is prepared from fruits pressed through a colander, or cut, in small pieces with a silver knife, or whole fruits cooked in syrup before adding as they freeze too hard if uncooked.

Ice creams are made with sweetened and flavored creams. Scalded cream gives a smoother, more velvety ice cream but swells less than raw cream in freezing. Scald cream, dissolve sugar in it, cool, add flavoring, and freeze. Either fruit juice or crushed fruit may be used for ice cream; it is preferable to use only the juice of very seedy fruits. When preparing ice cream with fruit the sugar and crushed fruit should stand one hour in a cool place, or until the sugar is dissolved, then it is added to the cream and frozen.