Cut Meat in Small Pieces and saw or crack bone. This is done to increase the surface exposed to the action of hot water.

Brown From One-fourth to One-half the Meat for brown stocks and consommes. This gives added color and improves flavor.

Soak the Meat and Bone in Cold Water for thirty minutes or more before cooking. This helps to extract the juices of the meat.

Heat Gradually to the Simmering-point (190°- 210° F.). If stock is to be used for bouillon or consomme or any clear soup, skim at this time. Continue to simmer for three or four hours to insure as complete extraction as possible of the juices and flavor of meat. If the mixture boils, it is not so fine in flavor.

Add the Spices, Herbs, and Vegetables, and continue simmering from one-half hour to one hour. The seasonings are added at this time rather than earlier to prevent the disagreeable flavor of over-cooked vegetables.

Strain the Soup Into a Large Bowl or other container. If the stock is to be used for clear soups, place several thicknesses of cheese-cloth over the strainer before pouring the mixture through it.

Cool the Stock Quickly, because quick cooling improves the keeping quality of the soup. Soup should, if possible, always be allowed to become thoroughly cold before being used, since the fat hardens and collects in a cake on top and can be removed easily. Do not remove fat from the top of soup stock until the stock is to be used. It protects the stock against spoilage.

Keep Stock in a Cold Place, as it spoils quickly if it is not kept chilled. Spoiled stock, like spoiled meat, is dangerous food.