This section is from the book "The American Woman's Cook Book", by Ruth Berolzheimer. Also available from Amazon: The Domestic Arts Edition of the American Woman's Cook Book.
Methods of combining flour or corn-starch with liquids are given in the front of the book. (See Index.) The simplest method of thickening sauces is by means of a roux. Equal parts of fat and flour make the best roux. If much more fat than flour is used, the fat rises to the top of the mixture. If less fat than flour is used, the paste may burn. Therefore, if more fat than flour is required in the sauce, it should be beaten in in small pieces after the liquid is added and just before the sauce is served; if less fat than flour is required, it is better not to make it into a roux but to use another method of thickening the sauce.
All sauces thickened with corn-starch should be cooked for at least fifteen minutes. Standing over hot water in a double boiler for an hour or longer improves the flavor. Sauces thickened with flour are better if cooked for at least five minutes after thickening. The seasonings should be added just before the sauce is served.
For a White Sauce - The American method of making a roux for white sauce is to melt the fat, add the flour and cook only until the, mixture bubbles before adding the liquid. This saves time, but at the expense of the flavor of the sauce. The French method is to melt the fat, add the flour and cook, with constant stirring, for five minutes, before adding any liquid. This removes the raw taste of the flour.
For a Brown Sauce - Melt the fat and allow it to brown before adding flour, then stir in the flour and stir constantly, until the flour is brown. The color depends on this browning, but care must be taken not to scorch This long preliminary cooking is the secret of a successful brown sauce. Tomato juice or sauce may be used as liquid.
1 small onion
2 tablespoons fat 1 pint milk
1/4 cup chopped lean raw ham 4 tablespoons flour
Slice the onion, place the fat in a saucepan and slightly brown the onion and ham in it. Add the flour and, when well mixed, the milk. Stir until it boils, then cook over hot water for ten minutes or longer. Add seasonings, strain and use.
Brown - Use a brown roux and brown stock in making the veloute.
Yellow - Add the beaten yolks of two eggs to white chaud-froid sauce just before removing from the fire.
6 tablespoons sugar
1/2 tablespoon cornstarch
1 cup water
1 cup orange juice
Grated rind 1 orange
1/3 cup crushed pineapple
Combine ingredients in the order listed. Heat to boiling and cook for 3 minutes. Serve with ham or tongue. Brown sugar may be used in place of granulated. Add 1/4 cup raisins and cook until they puff.