Stirring - Food is stirred by a rotary motion of the arm. The purpose of stirring is to mix thoroughly all ingredients.

Beating - Food is beaten when the motion in mixing brings the contents at the bottom of the bowl to the top and there is a continual turning over and over of a considerable part of the contents of the bowl. The purpose of beating is to enclose a large amount of air.

Folding In - Two foods are blended by putting the spoon or egg-whip vertically down through the foods, turning it under the mass, and bringing it vertically up. This process is repeated until the mixing is complete. The purpose of folding in is to prevent the escape of air or gases that have already been introduced into the mixture.

Cutting in - A process used to blend fat with flour. It consists of cutting the fat into the flour with a knife or two knives until it is distributed in as small particles as desired.

Creaming - A rubbing together of fat and sugar, or a pressing and beating of fat to soften it.

Kneading - A stretching motion applied to dough when more flour is to be added than can be either stirred or beaten into the mixture; or used to make a dough smooth and even in consistency.

Larding - A process of inserting match-like strips of salt pork about one-fourth inch in thickness into a dry meat or fish. These strips are called lardons, and are inserted either by making an incision in the surface and laying the lardon in the slashing or by the use of a larding-needle. The pork is clamped into one end of the needle and is threaded into the meat, as in any sewing process.