½ teaspoonful of salt.
Dash of cayenne.
1 cupful of salad oil. 1½ teaspoonfuls of lemon-juice.
Let the oil and egg be thoroughly chilled before beginning to make Mayonnaise. In summer it is well to stand the soupplate in which the dressing is being mixed in a dish of cracked ice; stir constantly with a silver fork or a wooden spoon. Have the yolk entirely free from any white of the egg; add drop by drop the oil. The success depends on adding the oil slowly at first. It is well to spend half the time in incorporating the first two spoonfuls of oil; after that it can be added in larger quantities. After the dressing has become a little thick, alternate a few drops of lemon-juice or of vinegar with the oil; a little tarragon vinegar gives good flavor. If mustard is liked, add one quarter teaspoonful of dry mustard. Add the salt and pepper last. If the sauce curdles, take another yolk, and add slowly the curdled Mayonnaise. A few drops of ice water or a small bit of ice added to the mixture when it begins to curdle will sometimes bring it back.
This dressing will keep for some time in a closed jar in the ice-box. The proportions given are right, but it is usually desirable to make a larger quantity. With care more oil can be added to the egg, which will give more sauce.
A very safe mixture, and one recommended for summer, is made by using the yolk of a hard-bailed egg with a raw yolk. With this the dressing is more quickly made and seldom curdles. Lemon-juice makes a whiter dressing than vinegar, but it also makes it a little softer.
Just before serving add to the above quantity of Mayonnaise one half cupful of very stiff whipped cream, or the white of one half an egg whipped very stiff.
Take some green herbs, such as chervil, tarragon, chives, parsley, a leaf of spinach, lettuce or watercress, and pound them in a mortar with a little lemon-juice. Express the juice and add it to the Mayonnaise. It is then called Ravigote sauce. Mashed green peas may be used to give color and also more consistency to the sauce when it is to be used to cover cold fish. A little vegetable green coloring can be added if the color is not sufficiently deep, but a delicate color is preferable.
Dry some lobster coral; pound it to a powder and rub it through a sieve; mix it with a little lemon-juice and add it to the Mayonnaise. Use a little carmine color if deeper shade is wanted. Or, color with well-strained tomato puree.
Instead of yolks of eggs, use aspic jelly as a medium to hold the oil; mix the sauce the same as the ordinary Mayonnaise. Or, to a cupful of aspic jelly (see page 321) or chicken aspic add a cupful of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar (one half being tarragon if convenient), a few drops of lemon-juice, salt, pepper, and cayenne; stir together all at once, the jelly being warmed enough to be liquid. Place it on ice and stir until it begins to set; keep it in a cool place. This jelly softens easily. It is used to coat fish or meats, and should be put on when a little soft. It will then make a smooth and polished surface. Keep the meats coated with the jelly on ice until ready to serve. It is used also for salads in forms, or Russian salads (see receipts).
Smooth a tablespoonful of arrowroot in cold water; stir it over the fire until it becomes smooth, clear and firm like starch; when a little cooled, add salt, pepper, mustard, and two or three yolks, and beat until smooth; when cold add oil as in regular Mayonnaise. This mixture will not curdle.