Stock made of meat alone will keep better than where vegetables are used. In warm weather it is well to have it so prepared.

Common Stock (Pot-Au-Feu)

For this stock pieces of fresh or cooked meat are used, also all odds and ends, chicken bones, gravies, cooked or raw vegetables, etc. Water in which fish or vegetables (excepting cabbage or potatoes) have been boiled may or may not be used. They are put together cold and are simmered for five or six hours, then strained through a colander into an earthen bowl and left to cool uncovered. Clear soup should not be attempted with this stock, but it is good to combine with vegetables for vegetable soup, or with other mixtures like rice, bits of meat, chicken, gumbo, etc., for soup and to use for sauces and seasoning.

* It will be difficult if not impossible to make a perfectly clear and brilliant soup from stock where bones have been used, if the stock has been subjected to boiling heat. Boiling dissolves the lime in the bones, and this gives a cloudiness which clarifying will not entirely remove. - M. R.

Beef Or Brown Stock

8 lbs. of shin of beef. 8 quarts of cold water. 1 medium-sized carrot. 1 medium-sized turnip. 1 parsley root and leaves.

1 onion.

1 stick of celery.

12 peppercorns.

6 cloves.

1 tablespoonful of salt.

Rub with a wet cloth the outside of the shin of beef, which has been well broken by the butcher. Take the meat from the bones and cut it into small pieces. Put aside a half pound of the meat. Place the rest of the meat and the bones in a perfectly clean pot with the cold water, and let it stand fifteen to twenty minutes, or until the water is red; then place them on the fire and let them come slowly to the simmering point. Meanwhile, place in a saute-pan some of the marrow from the bones, or a tablespoonful of drippings. When the fat is hot put in the half pound of reserved meat and cook it until it is well browned. When the water in the pot has begun to simmer, put in the browned meat and rinse the saute-pan with a few spoonfuls of water so none of the value of the browned meat will be lost. This will give good color and also flavor to the soup. Place the pot where the water will simmer only, and leave it to cook for six hours, or until the meat is cooked to shreds and its nutriment fully extracted.

Add the vegetables, which have been well washed, scraped, and cut into pieces, one hour before the cooking is completed, and add the salt just before removing the stock from the fire.

If a clear soup is not desired, the care to keep it below the boiling point is not essential. (See note, page 87).

When the stock is done strain it through a close cloth or a fine sieve into an earthen bowl, and let it cool without covering.

When ready to serve, remove the grease, clear it if desired for transparent soup, add more pepper and salt to taste.

For Macaroni, Noodle, Vermicelli, Vegetable Or Printaniere, Julienne, Tapioca, And Croute-Au-Pot Soups

Take as much of the beef stock as will be needed, allowing one half pint for each person, remove all the grease, heat it, and season to taste. Just before serving add any of the above articles, which must have been boiled separately. The soup will then have the name of the ingredient used.

Julienne

Julienne does not differ from the vegetable soup except in the form given the vegetables. For julienne, the outside or deep yellow of the carrot, turnip, and celery are cut, with a knife which comes for the purpose, into thin, thread-like pieces about two inches long. The shredded vegetables must be boiled before being added to the soup, and care used to prevent their breaking or becoming too soft to hold their form, or they may be fried in butter until tender. Green peas, asparagus tips, and flowerets of cauliflower may also be added. (See illustration facing page 92).

Printaniere And Julienne Soup Vegetables.

Printaniere And Julienne Soup Vegetables

1, 2, 3. Cutters used for cutting vegetables for Printaniere Soup.

4. Vegetables prepared for Printaniere Soup.

5. Knife for cutting vegetables into Julienne. 6. Julienne.

Printan-Iere

Any vegetables may be used for vegetable soup, but judgment should be shown in the combination. They may be made ornamental by being cut into fancy shapes with cutters, or into balls with a small potato scoop, or they may be cut into dice.

Tapioca

Pearl tapioca boiled to clearness makes a very pretty thickening to clear soup.

Croute Au Pot

Small pieces of toast or thin shavings of stale bread are added to the tureen just before serving to make the crodte-au-pot. The soup should be served before the bread dissolves or gets very soft.

For julienne, tapioca, and croute-au-pot, the soup should be perfectly clear and a deep amber color.

Garnishes For Soups

Other garnishes which may be added to soups are: Force-meat balls (see page 92); yolks of hard-boiled eggs; egg balls (see page 92); royal custard (see page 92); fried croutons (see page 81); noodles (see page 93); dumplings (see page 170); thin cross-cuts of celery; thin slices of lemon, one for each plate; grated Parmesan cheese (passed); macaroni cut into pieces one eighth of an inch thick, making rings; sweet potato balls (see page 94); marrow balls (see page 94) 5 green pea timbale (see page 94); harlequin slices (see page 94); with consomme, a poached egg for each portion.