Scald the fruit in a stone jar set in a kettle of water, or on a hot hearth. When the juice will run freely, strain it without pressing: to every quart of juice allow one pound of loaf-sugar; boil it up and skim; when quite clear pour out; and when cold, add an equal quantity of brandy. Shake them well together and bottle.
For a quart of water six lemons, and two ounces of loaf-sugar. Shave half the lemons, or rub the 6Ugar over them. Squeeze the juice of the lemons to the sugar, and pour the water boiling hot. Well mix the whole, and run it through a jelly-bag previously wrung out of scalding water. Lemonade may be obtained, when the fruit is not in season, by using the syrup of lemons; (simmer each pint of juice with three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar; strain and bottle:) or the citric acid - two drachms of citric acid, twenty drops of essence of lemon, a pint of clarified syrup or capil-laire. This may be reduced at pleasure with boiling water.
As sugar is the basis or ground-work of the confectioner's art, it is essentially necessary that the practitioner should carefully study and observe the difference in its qualities, the changes which it undergoes or effects when combined with other articles in the process of manufacture, and also the different forms which it assumes by itself at various stages. Without this knowledge, a man will never become a thorough and efficient workman, and it can only be acquired by practice and experience.
The first process which it undergoes in the hands of the confectioner, is that of clarification. It is conducted on the same principle as the refining of sugar, although not carried out in every particular.
Under this head are comprised the degrees from the small thread to the large pearl; for at these points the sugar is kept in a divided state, and remains a fluid of on oily consistency. A bottle which holds three ounces of water will contain four ounces of syrup. The method of ascertaining those degrees, according to the usages of the trade, is as follows: -
Having placed the clarified syrup on the fire, let it boil a little, then dip the top of your finger in the boiling syrup, and on taking it out apply it to the top of your thumb, when, if it has attained the degree, on separating them a small ring will be drawn out a little distance, about as fine as a hair, which will break and resolve itself into a drop on the thumb and finger.
Continue the boiling a little longer, repeat the same operation as before, and a larger string will be drawn.
To ascertain this degree, separate the finger from the thumb as before, and a large string may be drawn, which will extend to nearly the distance the fingers may be opened.
The finger may now be separated from the thumb to the greatest extent before the thread will break.
Continue the boiling of the sugar, dip a skimmer in it and shake it over the pan, then blow through the holes, and if small bubbles or air-bladders are seen on the other side, it has acquired this degree.