Roasting and baking are now synonymous terms. We speak of roasting meats and baking breads, yet we use the same oven for both. Roasting formerly meant to place the meat on a spit before the open fire, turn it frequently and baste constantly to keep from burning. Roasting to-day means to bake in a hot oven.

Roast Beef

There are seven prime ribs in a beef. Any of them will make a first-class roast. Do not have the ribs removed, but have them cut in two-inch pieces up to the thick muscle; cut these pieces of bone off, to be braised and served as short ribs of beef; place the cut surface of the roast on a smoking hot griddle and press close; let cook for two or three minutes, or until it is nicely seared; turn and sear the other side; set the roast, resting upon the edges of the ribs, on a rack in a dripping pan; put into an oven hot enough to bake bread, and let cook; do not season the meat and do not put water in the pan; when the oven is at the proper temperature you will hear a gentle sputtering when the oven door is opened - if smoke issues from the oven it is too hot - if you do not hear a gentle sputtering increase the temperature. The time required for roasting depends upon the thickness of the roast; fifteen minutes is allowed for each inch in thickness; a roast four inches in thickness will cook rare in one hour; measure across the thickest part of a roast. A rump roast is seared in the same way and placed upon a rack in a hot oven; allow fifteen minutes to the pound.

Yorkshire Pudding

Two-thirds of a cupful of flour, Three eggs,

One pint of milk,

One teaspoonful of salt.

Sift the flour and measure; add the salt; separate the eggs and add the yolks, unbeaten, to the flour; add a little of the milk and mix to a smooth paste; add the rest of the milk gradually; beat whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and stir into the batter; pour into the roasting pan forty-five minutes before the roast is cooked; serve hot with the roast of beef; if the roast is very fat pour some of the fat from the pan before putting in the pudding.

Braised Beef Or Pot Roast

Six or eight pounds chuck roast or a piece of the rump; trim and rub with pepper and salt; cut a large onion into dice and brown in salt pork fat; put the roast into a braising pan; pour over it one quart of boiling water; add the onion; cover closely and cook in a moderate oven about four hours, turning after two hours, and add more water as it evaporates, so as to have three cups of gravy; when tender take up the meat; skim off the fat from the gravy and thicken with a tablespoonful or flour wet in a little cold water and strained into the gravy; season with pepper and salt and a little lemon juice.

Veal Heart

Remove the tough membranes and soak in cold water and salt one hour; wipe and stuff with stale bread crumbs seasoned with salt and pepper and moistened with melted butter; rub the heart with salt, pepper and dredge with flour; fry brown in a pan with a little fat salt pork; place in braising kettle; add one pint of water, one tea-spoonful of minced onion; sprig of parsley, three cloves, three pepper corns, one small carrot cut fine; cover tightly and cook two hours in a moderately hot oven; turn three or four times while cooking.

Roast Lamb Or Mutton

Remove the skin from a leg of lamb or mutton; sear the cut surfaces on a hot griddle; place on a rack in a roasting pan in a hot oven. A leg of lamb will roast in one hour and a quarter, while it requires one hour and three-quarters to roast a medium-sized leg of mutton.

Roast Veal

Veal being a dry meat, requires basting to keep it moist and to enrichen it; rub the veal with sugar, salt and pepper, using one-half as much sugar as salt; place upon rack in roasting pan and let cook in a hot oven until nicely browned, then baste with a thin gravy made from one tablespoonful of butter, one of flour and two cupfuls of stock or water; season with pepper and salt; baste every fifteen minutes; veal requires longer cooking than either beef or mutton: a five-pound roast will cook in two and one-half hours.

Pork

Fresh pork is seasoned with pepper, salt and sugar. Roast and baste the same as veal.