Extracts are solutions in alcohol of the volatile oils and other substances which give the characteristic flavors to various plants. Extracts of many varieties are on the market, but vanilla, lemon, orange, and almond are, perhaps, the most commonly used.

Vanilla is a bean from a climbing vine, native to tropical America. The beans grow in a pod which is allowed to ferment after it is picked. Then the beans are dried for market. To make extract they are cut up and extracted with alcohol. Sugar is sometimes added. The Tonka bean has a similar flavor.

Lemon and orange extracts are prepared by soaking the peel of the fruits in strong alcohol.

Almond extract is made from the oil of bitter almonds. This oil may be obtained not only from bitter almonds but also from the seeds of apricots and peaches.

All spices and extracts sold in interstate commerce must conform to certain fixed standards prescribed by Federal laws. Many states also prescribe standards.


"History and Use of Cocoa and Chocolate." Walter Baker & Co.

Ltd., Dorchester, Mass. "The Chocolate Plant." Walter Baker & Co. Ltd. Olsen. "Pure Foods."


1. Is it economical to buy a sweetened cocoa and pay as much per pound as for ordinary cocoa?

2. Which costs most per pound, chocolate or cocoa?

3: What are the advantages and disadvantages in using cocoa in place of chocolate in making frostings, cakes, and the like?

4. Is it easier to melt or grate chocolate for such use?

5. How do cocoa and chocolate compare in food value with tea and coffee?