Broiling over coals. Pan broiling. Oven broiling.
In broiling, an article of food is subjected to radiant heat, which usually reaches the article being cooked, from one side only. In broiling proper, this heat comes from a bed of glowing, smokeless coals, and the article to be cooked is supported by a few wires. In pan broiling, the heat is conducted by a hot metal surface, as a hot griddle, and the article to be cooked lies on the radiating surface. In oven broiling, the medium is hot air, and the process differs from baking only in having much more intense heat, as the article to be cooked is thin, and requires an intense heat, because it must be cooked quickly, and be served while still juicy and hot.
When food is boiled, it is enveloped in hot water. In some cases, the water should boil rapidly all the time, as in cooking potatoes, carrots, etc. In other cases, it should not bubble at all, but be kept near the boiling point. The reason for this is found in the articles on cooking vegetables and meats.
Stewing is a combination of two methods, - boiling and steaming, - only a little water being used, and the article to be cooked placed in a closed vessel with tight-fitting cover, so that the confined steam aids the small amount of hot water in making the food tender.
In steaming, the food is placed above hot water, and the vessel is covered so closely that the steam surrounds the food and cooks it. This is an excellent method of cooking such vegetables as potatoes, parsnips, etc. When foods such as cereals, steamed bread, etc., are cooked in a vessel surrounded by hot water, we call the process steaming, though the steam does not touch the food, but the heat is conducted to it by means of the metal or porcelain vessel containing the article to be cooked.
In baking, the article to be cooked is surrounded by hot air. In roasting, the heating medium is the same.
In frying, the food is surrounded by hot fat. In sau-teing, a small quantity of fat is used, and articles which would be tough when fried or broiled are made tender by first browning in the fat, and then subjecting to a long, slow cooking, the spider being closely covered all the time.
Braising might be termed "oven stewing," as a small amount of water is used, and the closely-covered vessel containing the food is kept in the oven while the article cooks.