This section is from the book "Hints To Housewives On How To Buy, How To Care For Food", by Mayor Mitchel's Food Supply Committee. Also available from Amazon: Hints to Housewives on How to Buy, How to Care for Food.
Pack fruit compactly in jars. It will pack better if put in a strainer or piece of cheese-cloth and lowered into boiling water for about one minute. This is called "blanching." Blanch fruit in small lots, that the water may not be cooled much. Press fruit gently down in jars with spoon or small wooden spatula. Fill jars with syrup. Release any air-bubbles by slipping knife or spatula down between fruit and jar. Put on rings and cover without fastening them down. Place jars on rack in boiler. Pour warm water in boiler, enough to come about half-way up the jars. Put cover on boiler. Bring water to a boil and boil gently as long as required. Remove boiler from the stove, fasten down covers, take jars out and let them cool. If, when jars are taken from the boiler, there is more than half an inch of space between fruit and cover, the contents of one jar may be used to fill the rest before the covers are fastened down. Put jars again in boiler and boil 5 minutes more.
These directions apply to fruit bought in towns and cities. Less time is required for fruit freshly picked. Ten minutes for quart jars, five minutes for pint jar of freshly picked berries is sufficient. The shorter the time of cooking, the better the berries retain their flavor, shape and color.
Fruits can be classified into three distinct groups, or classes, such as soft fruits, sour berry fruits and hard fruits.
1. Soft Fruits, Such As Strawberries, Blackberries, Sweet Cherries, Blueberries, Peaches, Apricots, Etc.
Recipe For Canning Soft Fruits - Make a syrup in the proportion of 1 cup of sugar to 3 cups of water. Put on stove and bring to the boiling point. For a thin syrup, boil one minute. For a medium-thin syrup, boil until slightly sticky when cooled. The amount of syrup required will depend upon the quantity of fruit to be canned. Rinse the fruit by pouring water over it through a strainer. Cull, seed, stem, and remove skins if necessary. Pack immediately in glass jars. Add boiling hot syrup. Fill jars to overflowing. Place rubbers and tops in place. Partially tighten. Place jars in kettle and boil gently for 10 to 20 minutes. Remove jars from kettle. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test for leakage. Wrap glass jars in paper to prevent bleaching. Then store.
2. Sour Berry Fruits, Such As Currants, Gooseberries, Cranberries And Sour Cherries.
Recipe For Canning Sour Berry Fruits - Stem, hull and clean. Dip quickly in hot water. Remove and dip quickly in cold water. Pack berries closely in jars. Add a boiling hot syrup made in the proportion of 1 1/2 cups of sugar to 3 cups of water. Place rubbers and caps in place. Partially tighten. Place jars in kettle and boil gently for 10 to 20 minutes. Remove jars. Tighten covers and invert to cool and test for leakage. Wrap in paper and store.
3. Hard Fruits, Such As Apples, Pears, Quinces, Etc.
Recipe For Canning Hard Fruit - Dip quickly in hot water for 1 1/2 minutes, and then plunge quickly in cold water. Core, pit, or remove skins if necessary. Pack whole, quartered, or sliced as desired. Add a boiling hot syrup made in the proportion of 1 cup of sugar to 3 cups of water. Place rubbers and tops in position. Partially tighten. Place jars in kettle and boil gently for 15 to 25 minutes. Remove jars. Tighten covers and invert to cool and test for leakage. Wrap glass jars in paper to prevent bleaching, and store.
Fruits Can Be Canned Without Sugar
This Is The Way To Do It. Wash fruit; cull, seed, stem, and remove skins if necessary.
Can whole or cut in halves. Pack fruit in jars and fill the jars to the top with cold water. Put rubbers and caps in place and partially tighten. Put jars in kettle and pour cold water into kettle, enough to come very near the top of the jars. Cover the kettle and bring slowly to boiling. Boil soft fruits from 30 to 45 mninutes, until fruit is cooked through. Hard fruits will require an hour and a half.
Have only enough fire to keep the water boiling gently. More than this is a waste of either coal or gas, and the rapid boiling is likely to crack the jars. When done, remove jars from the boiling water and fasten covers tightly at once, without having taken covers off. This is important, for no air should enter jars after boiling begins. Invert to cool and test for leakage. Wrap in paper and store.