Raw meat and bone, about 2 lb.

Cooked meat, or meat and bone, about 1 lb.

Cold water (fresh, or from cooked meat or vegetables), 3 qt.

To each pound of meat and bone allow of onion, carrot, cut into half-inch cubes, 1 heaping tablespoonful each.1

Celery, 1 stalk or 1 root. A bit of bay-leaf. A sprig of parsley.

Salt, about 1/2 t. Peppercorns, 2, or Pepper, f. g.

Have the bones sawed into inch lengths and split; cut the meat into inch cubes or smaller. Why? If the raw meat only is used, brown one-third of it in a little of the fat in a frying-pan.2 Let meat and bones soak in the water for one hour, then simmer in a covered kettle four or five hours, or until the meat is in fragments. About one hour before taking the stock from the fire, add to it the vegetables and seasonings. When the vegetables are very soft strain the stock through a coarse strainer and set it aside for twenty-four hours, or until the fat solidifies on its surface. Remove every speck of this fat, saving it to try out, and if the stock is to be used for clear soup, clear it according to the directions on p. 167.

Bone, commonly regarded as refuse, is called for in the directions for making soup-stock. If we compare this stock with bouillon, or with any broth made from meat with little or no bone, we shall find that the first is jellied when cold, the second liquid. What is there in bones to make this difference?

1 Seasonings and flavorings may be varied or, in part, omitted.

2 By this means the soup gains in flavor, though at the cost of some food value.