With a spoon put stuffing into the neck-opening. Do not cram the cavity full, as the crumbs will swell. Put the rest into the other end of the bird. Draw the neck-skin down and lay over upon the back. Cross wings on back so as to hold this skin in place. With string tie ends of legs to tail.

Place the chicken on its back in a roasting-pan. Rub salt all over it. Roast in a hot oven till brown. Reduce the heat and continue roasting till tender. Baste every ten minutes. Remove string before serving.

Time

For a three or four pound chicken, one to one and one-half hours.

For basting, use melted chicken fat or melted butter and hot water (three tablespoonfuls of fat or butter to one cup of water). When this is used up, baste with liquid in pan.

To Make Giblet Gravy

While the chicken is roasting boil giblets and neck. Have about one pint of water left with them when they are done. Mash liver. Chop heart, gizzard, and meat from neck. When the chicken is taken from the pan, pour the clear fat from pan into a cup or bowl and the settlings into the saucepan with the giblet-water. Brown one-fourth cupful flour in one-fourth cupful of the fat from pan. Add the liquid from the pan about one-third at a time and boil till smooth. Stir in the chopped giblets. Season with salt and pepper and serve in bowl with ladle.

Turkey is cleaned and roasted like chicken. A fowl not tender enough for roasting may be braised. (P. 173.)

Cutting Up A Fowl For Fricassee

Use a small, sharp-pointed knife. (1) Cut off the head and remove the oil-bag, but do not draw the fowl. (2) Cut the skin between one leg and the body. Bend back the leg. Cut through the flesh, and separate the joint. This leaves second joint and drumstick in one piece. Separate these as you separated the leg from the body. (3) Make a circular cut around the wing close to the joint. Break the wing-joint. Cut off the tip. If desired, divide the wing at the joint as the leg was divided. (4) Cut off and divide leg and wing on other side. (5) Divide the breast from the back by cutting along the ends of the ribs. Break joint at collar-bone. Cut the breast in two. (6) Remove entrails. (7) Divide the back crosswise, breaking the spine. The lower part of the back may be divided again. (8) Wash the back thoroughly. Wipe the other pieces with a damp cloth.

Stuffing For Chicken

Bread-crumbs, 2 c.

Sage or poultry seasoning, 1 t.

Salt, 1 t.

Pepper, 1/2 t. Butter, 3 tb. Boiling water, 1/3 c.

Mix crumbs and seasonings. Melt the butter by pouring the boiling water on to it and stir into the crumbs.

Chicken Fricassee

One fowl.

Boiling water or white stock, 1 qt.

One small onion.

Salt, 2 t.

Parsley cut fine, 2 t.

A few sprigs of parsley for garnishing.

Cut up the chicken as directed above.

Brown the onion in a little tried-out chicken fat or drippings, and put it with the chicken meat and bones. Add stock or water, and let it simmer about an hour, or till nearly evaporated. Take out the bone, pour off the liquid, and let the meat and sediment brown delicately, stirring and turning the pieces. Then pour back the liquid, with enough water or stock in addition to make two or three cup-fuls in all. Add the salt. After simmering for another hour the chicken should be tender. Arrange the pieces on a hot platter, with the neck and the tail in the centre, the breast-pieces and the wish-bone on top of these, the second joints at one end of the dish, the legs crossed at the other, and the wings and side-pieces on either side. Thicken the gravy with flour wet with cold water, and pour over the chicken; sprinkle and garnish with parsley. The fricassee may be served in a border of rice.

Chicken Stew, sometimes called "White Fricassee of Chicken," is prepared like chicken fricassee, except that the chicken is not browned. After removing the chicken, reduce the liquid to one and one-half cupfuls, add one cupful of milk, and thicken with four tablespoonfuls of flour. Stewed chicken, lacking the flavor of browned meat, is better served on slices of toast than with the comparatively tasteless rice.

Brief Reference List

For further development of topics treated in this section see: -

Sherman : Food products. Ch. 7.

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture : Farmers' bulletin: 182. Poultry as food. Ward : Grocer's encyclopedia. (For various kinds of poultry and game.) Farmer: Boston cooking-school cook-book. (For cooking poultry and game.)