1. To keep the dough from cooling, mix and knead it quickly. In cold weather, warm the flour, the board, and the mixing-bowl.

2. The longer the batter is beaten, the less kneading the dough will require. When the dough can be lifted in a mass on the spoon, it is ready to knead.

3. We knead bread (l) to mix the ingredients thoroughly, (2) to make the gluten elastic, and (3) to work in air. Dough is sufficiently kneaded when it can be left on the board for a minute or more without sticking. Use as little flour as possible.

4. By using not less than one yeast-cake to one pint of liquid the following advantages are gained: (l) The bread can be made and baked within five hours. (2) It may more easily be kept clean and free from kitchen odors than if it stood longer. (3) It has not time to sour.

5. If you are unable to attend to the dough as soon as it is risen, it may be cut down {i.e. scraped away from the sides of the bowl and pressed over into the centre) and allowed to rise again.

6. Dough that contains large bubbles has risen too fast or too long. It should be cut down and rekneaded to distribute the gas evenly. Sour dough falls in the middle, is stringy, and smells and tastes acid.

7. Use round or French bread-pans; in the corners of rectangular pans the dough has not room fully to expand. Make small loaves always, to insure the bread's being baked through. If obliged to use pans more than four inches broad, bake the bread from one hour and a quarter to one hour and a half, decreasing the heat after the first half hour. Why should it be decreased?

8. If bread rises much after being put into the oven, the heat is not great enough; if it begins to brown in less than fifteen minutes, the heat is too great. If the loaf rises or browns more on one side than on the other, turn it around.

9. The crust, by preventing the inside of the loaf from drying, keeps the centre from becoming hotter than about 212° F. Which is more digestible, crust or crumb? Why?

10. Bread is baked when it shrinks from the sides of the pan. To make the crust crisp and tender, rub it while hot with a bit of butter twisted in a piece of cloth or paper. Set fresh loaves on edge in such a way that air reaches all sides of them. When cool put them in a tin box or stone jar. Do not wrap bread in cloth. If it tends to dry quickly, wrap it in waxed paper.

Uses For Stale Bread

Stale bread, if heated in a closely covered pan, becomes almost like new. Keep pieces of stale bread by themselves in a jar or covered bowl. Stale slices may be used for toast. (See directions for toasting bread, p. 89.) Dry broken pieces in a warm oven until they are crisp, but not brown. Grind them, or crush them on a board with a rolling-pin kept for this purpose ; sift the crumbs, and keep them in a jar to use for croquettes, etc. They will keep several weeks. Coarser or browned crumbs may be used for the tops of scalloped dishes. Stale crumbs not dried are suitable for bread puddings, and filling of scalloped dishes. Bread dried slowly in the oven till brittle and brown all through is liked by many people and is excellent for children.