This section is from the book "Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery", by Mary E. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery; A Textbook Of Domestic Science For Use In Schools.
2. It is often well to substitute a cheaper fat, wholly or in part, in recipes calling for butter. Good cake can be made with butterine, chicken-fat, or part butter and part lard. Beef fat is a good substitute for butter in shortening bread, biscuits, and gingerbread.
3. Have articles to be fried as dry as possible, and not very cold. Why?
4. Cautions. - Always lower food gently into hot fat; if the food is dropped in, the fat, splashing up, will burn your hand, and may fall on the stove and catch fire. If this happens, or if the fat in the kettle takes fire, throw sand or ashes or flour on it. With care about spattering the fat, or spilling water into it, which causes a sudden burst of steam, there need be no accidents.
6. When fat has become dark from repeated using, clarify it with potato or pour into it, when cold, three or four times its bulk of boiling water, stir well, and let it cool. Remove the cake of fat, and scrape off the sediment that will be found on its under side. Fat too dark for croquettes may be used for fish. From overheating, or many times reheating, it becomes unfit for cooking purposes. When you find it does not brown the food well, use it for soap-grease or throw it away.
For further development of topics treated in this section see: -
Sherman : Food products. Ch. 9 and 10.
Olsen : Pure foods. Ch. 6 and ch. 7 to p. 74.
Wiley : Foods and their adulteration. Ch. 7.
Ward : Grocer's encyclopedia. (Articles on olives, olive-oil, peanuts, peanut oil, oleomargarine, etc.) U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: Farmers' bulletins: 431. The peanut;
322. Nuts and their uses as food.