Pastry for one Large Pie

2 1/2 cups flour, salt, 1 - 1 1/2 teaspn. lemon juice, large 1/3 cup of cooking oil, ice water

Have all ingredients as nearly ice cold as possible. Dip the flour lightly into the cup with a spoon, do not shake it down. Mix salt with flour; pour oil over and chop it in with a spoon; do not mix much. Put the lemon juice in a cup, add water to make 1/4 of a cup, and pour over the flour and oil mixture, adding enough more water to make a rather soft dough; chop all together with a spoon, press into a mass without kneading, roll out without mixing on a well floured board, with a well floured rolling pin. A little more oil will be required when lemon juice is not used.

Nut or olive oil may be substituted for cooking oil, with a slightly smaller proportion of olive oil. Olive oil does not, of course, harmonize as well in flavor with all fillings as the others.

1/3 farina may be used in crust, with less shortening.

In mixing crust for several pies at once, not quite so large a quantity will be required for each.

Keep crust that is left each time well covered in a cool place and when making pies again, chop or grind it and mix it with the flour before adding the oil. It will make the new crust more flaky.

Pie Flakes

Mix flour, salt and oil for a quantity of pies. Put into a large, close covered jar (or tin pail lined with waxed paper) and set in cold place. To make a pie, take out about 2 1/3 cupfuls, add water and mix and roll as usual.

Hot Water Crust

Mix together equal quantities of oil and boiling water and pour over flour which has been mixed with salt.

This crust rolls out more easily than ice water crust but is not as tender and flaky. A slightly larger proportion of oil may be used, but if too rich, the crust cannot be handled at all.

Cream Pastry

Mix flour and salt and pour enough thick sweet or sour cream over to roll out well. The thicker the cream, the better the crust will be. Sour cream makes more crisp and tender crust than sweet and has not the least sour taste when baked.

Butter Crust

Rub together 1/2 cup (1/4 lb.) butter and 2 cups (1/2 lb.) flour; wet with ice water to make of a rollable consistency, press into a mass and set in the ice box. When thoroughly chilled, roll 1/3 - 1/2 inch thick; spread with butter, sprinkle lightly with flour, roll up, cut across the roll and roll pieces out thin for the pie. Butter pastry is not tender even when much pains is taken with it and the flavor is not agreeable.

Bread Pie Crust

4 slices small loaf of bread 6 tablespns. oil boiling milk, salt 2-2 1/2 cups flour

Dip slices of bread in boiling milk, cool, add oil, salt, and flour to roll. This makes two under crusts.

Nut Meal Crust

2 cups flour salt

1 cup home made peanut meal cream

Mix flour, meal and salt, pour enough moderately rich cream over to make a paste to roll out. A little oil may be added to the meal and flour, and water used in place of cream.

Granella Crust

For one good sized pie take about 1/2 cup of granella (less if fine, more if coarse, but it is better not to be too coarse nor too very fine). Mix a little salt with it and pour over it quickly, enough rich milk or thin cream to moisten it slightly, about 1/4 cup, perhaps. (If too moist, the crust will be soggy.) Turn immediately on to the pan and spread and press it evenly with a spoon over the bottom and sides, dipping the spoon often into cold water. A teaspoon is best for the sides, and holding the forefinger of the left hand above the edge of the pan as you are pressing with the spoon makes the edge of the crust firmer and smoother. Do not let the crust come over the edge of the pan, because only that part which adheres to the filling will come out with the pieces of pie when served; the remainder will drop off and be wasted. For that reason the crust should be just as thin as it is possible to pat it out on the pan. Be careful to make the crust in the angle between the bottom and sides of the pan no thicker than in any other part. The novice usually fills that in rounding. A positive pressure of the teaspoon in pressing the paste up on the edge of the pan will remove the extra portion there.

In baking these crusts before filling, watch them that they do not get too brown, and handle them carefully.

I have been thus explicit because this is of all pie pastes the most important hygienically and in point of time. It is very quickly and easily made, in fact, it must be made quickly. If the crust stands long after the liquid is added, it does not spread well.

In making a large number of pies, mix each crust separately; you will save time. Zwieback crumbs may be used instead of granella and almond or cocoanut cream in place of dairy. The cream must be thin or the crust will not spread well.

Granella Crust No. 2

Allow scant 2/3 cup of granella to each pie. Measure up the quantity required. Mix the salt with it and pour oil over in the proportion of 1/2 tablespn. of oil to each pie. (3/4 tablespn.

melted butter may be used and no salt.) Rub all well together with the hands, take out enough for each pie at a time, wet with cold water and proceed as in the preceding recipe. This mixture will need to be quite wet to spread.

Zwieback crumbs may be used for this also.

Fillings for Granella Pies

The pulp of stewed prunes, peaches, apricots or dried apples, or other not too juicy materials, with or without a meringue or whipped cream, or a sprinkling of dry granella on the top.

Cooked fillings of cream or lemon pies are delightful in the baked crusts.

If you have not a pie knife, use two broad flat knives in serving a pie with granella crust.