The art of pruning cannot be properly accomplished without a close study of the habit and mode of growth of each species of plant whose cultivation is undertaken. The object of pruning in each case should be strictly kept in view, and the time and method of operating guided accordingly. Apples, Pears, Plums, Nuts, and Cherries form their flower buds in the late summer and autumn previous to their expansion in spring. In most cases they are produced on short, lateral spurs, and may readily be distinguished soon after the fall of the leaf by their plump and rounded form. Those of the Morello Cherry, Peach, Nectarine, and Black Currant are scattered along the shoots of the previous year, and these must be retained full length or only the weak tips removed. Red and White Currants flower chiefly on buds thickly clustered on the old wood, so that the young shoots should be cut away almost to the base, except the leaders of young bushes, which may be left 4 to 6 in. long. The Vine flowers on the wood of the current year, so that the laterals may be pruned back to one or two good buds near the main rod. Hybrid Perpetual and bush Tea Roses produce their flowers on the growths of the current year, and for this reason may be pruned hard back to get good flowers. Climbing Tea Roses, like Gloire de Dijon and Bouquet d'Or, Climbing Hybrid Teas, Noisettes like William A. Richardson, and Wichu-raiana Roses, must not have their long young stems cut hard back, or few or no flowers will be obtainable during the forthcoming season. Banksian Roses produce their flowers on shoots of the first or second year's growth from the main stem, and these secondary or tertiary shoots must be tied or nailed up full length. All these climbing types require thinning chiefly, and two-year-old stems removed to prevent crowding. Deutzias, Guelder Roses, Lilacs, Cytisus, Genista, Forsythia, Hydrangea hortensis, and other shrubs that set their buds on wood of the previous year must not have these cut back till after the flowering period, and then it should be done at once where necessary.

Inflorescence (Capitulum) of Dandelion.

Fig. 44. - Inflorescence (Capitulum) of Dandelion.

Cymose Inflorescence   Definite, the central flower opening first.

Fig. 45. - Cymose Inflorescence - Definite, the central flower opening first.