This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
(V. W., Wyalusing, Pa.)
It is some sort of a Borer. We hare taken steps to ascertain.
(A. G. H.)
The Plum twigs sent are covered with the scaly aphis. Wash the parts affected with the following mixture: Soft soap and water in proportion of one quart of former to four of latter, with lime or ashes enough to make it of the consistency of whitewash. Put on with a brush.
The discussion to be continued until 5½ o'clock, and from 8½ to 10 o'clock to-day, also that the public be allowed admission during the afternoon and evening.
After a recess to allow exhibitors to arrange their fruit the discussion of the subject of fire-blight was commenced, and was participated in by Messrs. Allen of Black Book, Thomas of Maceden, Townsend of Lockport, Cadwallader, Coppock, Eaton and Mason of Buffalo, Barry of Rochester and others.
Mr. Allen thought the disease was the result of electricity in the atmosphere.
Mr. Thomas could not account for the disease, but thought it contagious and always amputated and buried the affected limb.
Mr. Cadwalader was of opinion that frost had something to do with it.
Mr. Townsend thought the disease resulted from trees being gorged with sap and acted upon by a moist atmosphere and intense heat, so as to rupture the sap vessels.
Mr. Barry had no theory of the disease. It was confined to certain localities, and could not be accounted for any more than the cholera. He did not know of any cure for it His way was to plant two trees for every one that was killed by the blight.
Mr. Hood, of Lockport, thought the disease was brought on by excessive manuring, which generated an unhealthy gas, in some way causing the tree to overact The only way to avoid it was to endeavor to secure a healthy and even growth.
Mr. Thomas, of Macodon, wished to say a word about the theory of the sap bursting the vessels, which had been assigned as the cause of the blight and also of the rust in wheat. He had examined into the case and was convinced that the rust was occasioned by the growth of fungi. No pressure of the sap would burst the vessels.
Mr. Pinney, of Lockport and Manley, of Buffalo, also related their experience in this matter of blight, but no effectual remedy for the disease was proposed.
Mr. Thomas, of Macedon, suggested as a means of arriving definitely at the varieties of pears most affected by the blight, that each member should in the morning bring in a list of pears most liable to blight with a description of the soil in which the trees were . grown and the mode of the culture.
A Novice, (Bangor, Me.) If you spread coarse refuse salt over your garden and field, at the rate of six bushels to the acre, as soon as the land is fit for working, you will destroy the cut-worm, (the white grub that destroys your vegetables,) and benefit the land.
A Subscriber, (York, Pa.) The first Curculio comes out of the ground in the spring, just as the blossoms of the plum begin to fall. About three weeks after, the insect falls from the tree in the fruit, and goes into the ground - it comes out in a beetle form, according to some entomologists - while others say not till the next spring. At any rate, there are broods, less numerous than those in early spring, all through the summer - the later ones finding no fruit to sting, taking the young branches instead - and in the latter case the eggs remain in the branches all winter, and the complete insect comes out the following June. The insect flies at noon-day - but whether the male or female, or both, crawl up the trunk at first, is not known. J. A. C, (Boston.) The insect you describe as boring the leading shoot of your evergreens, is probably the Pine Weevil. The insect comes out in a perfect state about the middle of August, and when the ends of the branches are infected, they should be cut off and burned before that time, to prevent the laying of more eggs. Wash the ends of the shoots, both in spring and mid-summer with a thick paint composed of soft-soap, and tobacco water, to prevent the beetles from depositing the eggs.
Keep a sharp look-out for insects all this month. A small, green worm will be found preying on the tender blossom buds; it may be picked off in the morning or evening. The curculio is sometimes found after the barriers are formed, and may be destroyed by shaking off into a bucket of lime-water.
Professor Asa Fitch says, in his new contributions to the Transactions in the New York Agricultural Society, " I sometimes think there is no kind of mischief going on in the world of nature around us, but that some insect is at the bottom of it. Certain it is that these little creatures, seemingly so insignificant and powerless as to be unworthy of a moment's notice from anybody but the curious, occupy a most important rank in the scale of creation, and on every side of us their performances are producing most important results, tending probably in an equal degree to our benefit in one direction, as to our detriment in another." It is impossible to over-estimate the value of these contributions to science, when we reflect that it is computed that all the species of insects taken together which exist in nature, do not fall short of four hundred thousand!