This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The slug-fly is of a glossy black color, except the first two pairs of legs, which are dirty yellow or clay colored, with blackish thighs and the hind legs, which are dull black, with clay colored knees. The wings are somewhat convex and rumpled or uneven on the upper side, like the wings of the sand-flies generally. They are transparent, reflecting the changeable colors of the rainbow, and have a smoky tinge, forming a cloud or broad band across the middle of the first pair; the veins are brownish. The body of the female measures rather more than one-fifth of on inch in length; that of the male is smaller. In the year 1828 these sand-flies were observed on the cherry and plum-trees, in Milton, Mass., on the tenth of May, but they usually appear towards the end of May or early in June. Soon afterwards some of them begin to lay their eggs, and all of them finish this business and disappear within the space of three weeks. Their eggs are placed, singly, within little semicircular incisions through the skin of the leaf, and generally on the lower side of it. The flies have riot the timidity of many other insects, and are not easily disturbed while laying their eggs.
On the fourteenth day afterwards, .the eggs begin to hatch, and the young slug-worms continue to come forth from the fifth of June to the twentieth of July, according as the flies have appeared early or late in the spring. At first the slugs are white; but a slimy matter soon oozes out of their skin and covers their backs with an olive-colored sticky coat.
They have twenty very short legs, or a pair under each segment of the body, except the fourth and the last. The largest of the slugs are about nine-twentieths of an inch in length when fully grown. .
The head of a dark chestnut color, is small, and entirely concealed under the forepart of the body.
They are largest before, and taper behind, and in form somewhat resemble minute tadpoles.
They have the faculty of swelling out the forepart of the body, and resting with the tail up.
These slugs live mostly on the upper side of the leaves, and eat away the substance, leaving only the veins and skins untouched. The trees attacked by them are forced to throw out new leaves during the heat of the summer; this unseasonable foliage, which should not have appeared until the following spring, exhausts the vigor of the trees and cuts off the prospect of fruit.
The slug-worms come to their growth in twenty-six days, during which period they cast their skins five times. After the last skin is thrown off, they no longer retain their slimy appearance and olive color, but have a clear yellow skin, entirely free from viscidity. They change also in farm and become proportionably longer, and their head and the marks between the rings are plainly to be seen. In a few hours after this change, they leave the trees, and having crept or fallen to the ground, they burrow to the depth of from one inch to three or four inches in the ground, according to the nature of the soil. By moving their bodies, the earth around them becomes pressed equally on both sides, and an oblong oval cavity is thus formed, and is afterwards lined with a sticky and glossy substance, to which the grains of earth closely adhere. Within these little earthen cells or cocoons the change to chrysalida takes place; and. in sixteen days after the descent of the slug-worms, they finish their transformations, break open their cells and crawl to the surface of the ground, where they appear in the fly form.
These flies usually come forth between the middle of July and the first of August, and lay their eggs for a second brood of slug-worms. The latter come to their growth, and go into the ground in September and October, and remain there till the following spring, when they change to flies.
It seems that all do not finish their transformations at this time; some are found to remain unchanged in the ground till the following year; so that if all the slugs of any one hatch should happen to be destroyed, enough from a former brood would remain in the earth to continue the species.
Ashes and quicklime, sifted on the trees by means of a sieve fastened to a pole, was recommended by the late Hon. John Lowell, of Roxbury, for the destruction of the pear and cherry slug-worm, and it is found to answer the purpose.
Of beautiful carved work. An elaborate arm-chair, of which we also give a design, is represented by Fig. 3.
In consequence of Mr. Albinola not having a warehouse to display these objects, they have not made their way to the general knowledge of the public, and as they are bulky and heavy, it will be tod expensive even to expect another importation of them, unless it is through special orders.
The getting of these engravings has been tedious and expensive, and but for our wish to present agreeable and novel objects for rural embellishment, we should not have willingly undertaken to make them thus known. The carving is deep and bold, and many of the articles will be much admired by the tasteful amateur.