This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Fr. L'oeil de Beuf. Germ. Die Wucher-blume. Span. Margarita mayor.
Stem 1 to near 2 feet high, erect or subde-cumbent, angular and striate, somewhat hairy, simple or sparingly branched, but often several from the same root. Leaves 1-2 inches long, the upper stem-leaves oblong, the lower ones cuneate-spatulate, and the radical ones obovate or orbicular-spatulate. Heads broad; rays very white - in length about equal to the diameter of the disk; disk-fiords yellow. Akones subtercte, ribbed, smooth, dark purple between the ribs, destitute of pappus. Receptacle slightly convex, dotted.
Fields and meadows, more or less throughout the United States: introduced. Native of Europe. Fl. June-Aug. Fr. July-September.
Obs. This vile intruder is becoming a great nuisance in our country. In some districts the careless, slovenly farmers have permitted it to get almost exclusive possession of their pasture fields, - rendering them quite white when the plant is in bloom. Cows will occasionally crop a portion of the weed in our pastures, - and I have heard it alleged that it contributes to the' mating of good butter: but my own observations induce me to regard it as utterly worthless. It fa propagated rapidly, and is, moreover, exceedingly difficult to get rid of, when once fully established; so that one negligent sloven may be the source of a grievous annoyance to a whole community. I have understood that annual ploughing and cropping for a few years, is the most effectual remedy for the evil; but then the fence-rows and neighboring fields must be well watched, to prevent the formation and introduction of fresh seed. The Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum, L., a kindred plant) - .which is said to be such a pest to the agriculture of Europe - does not appear to have found its way, as yet, to the United States.
The "Divining Rod" has still its believers among us. Hear how they are treated by Dr. D. under the head of Corylw Avellana, L.
1. C Avella'na, L. Leaves orbicular cordate, acuminate; stipules ovate-oblong, obtuse; involucre about the length of the fruit.