This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Dr. LeBaron says, in the Prairie Farmer, that half and probably more than half the apple worms have escaped from the apples before the apples fall; hence he thinks the importance of picking up these apples or of allowing hogs to run in the orchard, has been overestimated. As to another mode of destroying these worms, he says:
"Soon after the young worms have entered the apple, which they generally do at the calyx end, they begin to throw out their castings through the hole which they made in entering. As this hole must be originally very small, it is evident that they must enlarge it for this purpose. A portion of these castings adhere to the rough and shriveled calyx, forming a rust-colored mass which can be easily seen from the ground beneath. Some horticulturists, among whom we may mention Mr. Oliver Chapin, of East Bloomfield, N. Y., and Mr. L. Barnes, of Bloomingdale, Ills., have availed themselves of this circumstance for the purpose of removing the wormy apples from the trees before the worms have escaped. Mr. Chapin's plan is to beat off the wormy fruit, but Mr. Barnes adopts the method of picking them off by means of a wire hook attached to the end of a pole. These methods can be usefully combined by first jarring or beating off those apples which readily fall, and then going over the trees a second time with a pole and hook. The apples thus removed should, of course, be fed to swine, or otherwise treated so as to destroy the worms within.
Too much value cannot be attached to these simple expedients, which, in the case of a few choice trees, or even a small orchard, might almost be made to supersede the necessity of any other treatment."