This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The following hints are so good, we regret our inability to quote with proper credit, but give them as we found them:
For a border tree, hardy, erect, quick-growing, comely in outline and beautiful in foliage, nothing equals the rock or sugar maple. To break the wind, for which they are very valuable, they should be set at first within twenty feet of each other, giving ample room, when sufficiently grown, for a full development by removing alternate trees. Trees which we took from the woods and helped to set, twenty years ago, are now, although much exposed to winds, fine specimens, nearly a foot in diameter. Why do not people grow more hedges of the native hemlock? There is no evergreen hedge that excels it in beauty. It has, especially in winter, a much more lively green than the arbor vitae, and with its delicate, fine branching, has not the unsightly stiffness of the spruce. It stood the recent hard winter for evergreens better, so far as we could observe, than any other. We believe that the arbor vitae has been much over-estimated. Unless constantly under the pruning shears, it is an awkward, loose-limbed tree, as may be observed by noticing the neglected specimens in any cemetery, where the hemlock or native spruce would form a handsome tree. Another tree which, for a permanent one, is, in our estimation, far inferior to its native relative, is the Norway spruce.
It is a handsome tree when young, and has the advantage of quick growth, and, well trimmed, makes a fine hedge. But after a few years it grows tall, open-limbed, the foliage being weak and scant. The native spruce - the black variety is the better - in the same locality will be shorter, thick-limbed, with a dense, dark green foliage, showing a vigor and vitality which belongs to an indigenous tree. The native spruce will probably never be a favorite with the nurserymen, for the reason that its early growth is slow, not yielding a quick return. But the country pastures abound in beautiful specimens of this kind, limbing to the ground, symmetrical as a cone, which can be had for the taking, and, removed with the sod attached, they will grow right along as though undisturbed.