This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
IN the present article we shall finish our description of the vine, so far as may be necessary to understand the meaning of the leading technical terms hereafter to be used. The roots, trunk, etc., will be sufficiently understood from our last. Referring to the engraving, the reader will find at the top of the trunk, d, where it begins to divide, a point marked f; this is the head of the vine, in reference to which the terms "heading in," "heading down," etc., will be used. From the point / there are two branches proceeding horizontally right and left, called arms, which are marked g ; more precisely, in reference to their direction, they are called horizontal arms. On the right arm is a long branch marked h ; this is a long cane or rod, and the one next to it, marked i, is a short cane, the latter being from one to three feet long, and the former four, six, or more feet long, the adjectives in these cases being used in quite an arbitrary manner. At o, o, on these canes, are the buds or eyes, which are single or double, as there happens to be one or two.
Farther along on the same arm, at k, is a single spur, and at l a double spur ; they are called single or double, as they are intended to produce one or two fruiting branches; a spur is annual wood cut down to one, two, or three eyes, and is either a short spur or a long spur. On the left arm is a branch marked m, with foliage, etc. The small branch, », proceeding from the axil of one of the leaves, is called a lateral; though only one is shown, a lateral usually proceeds from the axil of each leaf; and it is of these laterals or small aide branches that so much is said about "pinching in." At p, on the same branch, is a small leafless twig called a tendril, which twines around any thing within its reach with great tenacity, and thus forms a firm support for the vine. The tendril is always on the side opposite the leaf. A little lower down on the same branch the tendril is replaced by a bunch of fruit, which, like the tendril, is on the side opposite the leaf: they always alternate each other. We have known artists, oddly enough, to represent the fruit and the leaf as proceeding from the same side. The leaf-stalk, foot-stalk, petiole, etc., is the stem which unites the leaf to the branch.
The shape of the leaf, the size and form of the bunch, the form and color of the fruit, and other matters of a similar kind, will form the subject of a distinct chapter at some future time.
[Engraving, showing the principal parts of the vine. It is drawn to a scale of a quarter of an inch to the loot].
Disbudding is a term often used, but it is little understood by novices. It is simply to rub off or cut out a bud; for example, if you rub off or cut out the buds, o, o, o, on the cane A, you disbud it. Pinching in is an operation performed chiefly on the laterals, and constitutes the principal part of summer pruning; it consists of pinching off the ends of the young and tender branches with the thumb and forefinger; if the operation is delayed too long, the knife will have to take the place of the thumb and finger, unless these appendages in the reader's case happen to be much tougher than ours. Dormant buds or eyes are such as have not been developed into branches; these are always abundant on the vine, especially on the old wood, and it would hardly be possible to cut an old vine down to within even a foot of the ground without developing a number of them. Nature is bountiful to the vine in this respect. Stopping is sometimes used synonymously with "pinching in;" but we shall confine its use to the removal of the ends of the principal growing branches; thus we shall stop a branch and pinch in a lateral.
Bleeding is a word used to denote the flow of sap caused by pruning late in spring.
We believe we have now explained most of the terms necessary to an understanding of the processes of pruning and training; there are others which can very well be explained as the subject proceeds. Those we have given, however, are indispensable to the beginner, and he should learn them thoroughly if he would make grape-culture a pleasant and easy study.
In conclusion, it may be well to recapitulate the parts of the vine indicated by the engraving : a, primary roots; b, secondary roots; c, the base of the vine; d, the neck; e, the trunk; f, the head; g, g, the arms; A, a long cane; i, a short cane; k, a single spur; l, a double spur; m, a growing cane furnished with foliage, etc.; n, a lateral; o, o, buds; p, a tendril. Among other important terms to be remembered are, fruit wood, annual wood, biennial wood, disbudding, pinching in, stopping, etc.