In the development of informal and formal pools the following group provides a ready reference for interesting types of perennials adapted for use in water gardens. For growing in wet soil along stream sides the closed gentian is one of the best plants. The cardinal flower naturally grows along stream sides or edges of ponds and will thrive, if in a damp soil, either in open sunlight or shade, but prefers shade.

a. Deep water:

Nelumbo (in variety) Lotus

Nymphaea alba White Water-lily

Nymphaea marliacea Hybrid Water-lily

Nymphaea odorata Native Pond-lily

Nymphaea odorata sulphurea Yellow Water-lily b. Shallow water:

Acorus japonicus variegatus Variegated Sweet Sedge

Alisma plantago Great Water-plantain

Butomus umbellatus Flowering Rush

Calla palustris Water Arum

Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold

Carex Sedge

Cyperus strigosus

Cyperus Iris pseudacorus

Yellow Water Flag Phragmites communis

Common Reed

Sagittaria montevidensis Giant Arrowhead

Scirpus lacustris Bulrush

Scirpus tabernaemonianus zebrinus Great Bulrush

Thalia dealbata Thalia c. Land at water-side:

Aruncus sylvester Goat's Beard

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed

Aster (in variety) Hardy Aster

Astilbe davidi David's Spirea

Caltha palustris flore pleno Marsh Marigold

Eupatorium ageratoides

White Snakeroot Eupatorium coelestinum

Mist Flower Filipendula purpurea

Steeple Bush

Gentiana andrewsi

Closed Gentian Helenium autumnale superbum

Tall Sneezeweed

Helonias bullata Swamp-pink

Hemerocallis flava Lemon Lily

Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Cow-parsnip

Hibiscus moscheutos

Swamp Mallow Iris kaempferi

Japanese Iris Iris orientalis

Oriental Iris

Leucanthemum lacustre

Leucanthemum Leucojum aestivum

Summer Snowflake Lobelia cardinalis

Cardinal Flower Lysimachia vulgaris

Common Yellow Loose-strife Lythrum salicaria roseum

Pink Loose-strife Miscanthus (in variety)

Plume Grass Myosotis palustris

Forget-me-not

Phalaris arundinacea Ribbon-grass

Primula japonica (in variety) Japanese Primrose

Rheum officinale Medicinal Rhubarb

Sarracenia drummondi Pitcher Plant

Senecio clivorum Groundsel

Thahctrum dipterocarpum Meadow-rue

M. Perennials for Planting on Edge of and in Front of Shrub Borders.

a. Low Growing:

Cerastium tomentosum Snow-in-summer

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides Leadwort

Funkia (in variety) Plantain Lily

Iberis sempervirens Evergreen Candytuft

Saxifraga (in variety)

Saxifrage Sedum (in variety)

Stonecrop b. Tall Growing:

Acanthus

Bear's Breech

Aster Starwort

Baptisia False Indigo

Bocconia

Plume Poppy

Doronicum Leopard's Bane

Ferns

Native Ferns

Helianthus

Hardy Sun-flower Hemerocallis

Day Lily

Hibiscus moscheutos hybrida Mallow Marvels