Drainage for plants

The carrying away of excess water from the soil in which plants are placed. This drainage promotes a deep root system, which aids the plant in surviving periods of drought; it also prevents a soil from becoming water-soaked and "drowning" the root system, especially of newly transplanted stock.

Dry Wall

A wall constructed of individual stones with loam filling the crevices between them. Such a wall may be used either as a retaining wall to support an embankment of earth or against an earth slope to prevent unnecessary erosion.


A family of plants which require for their normal growth an acid soil (a soil free from lime or magnesium).


The act of transplanting any plant to a new location and causing root growth which makes the plant as capable in its new location as in its old location, of continuing normal growth.


Plants with persistent leaves. These plants drop but a small portion of the old leaves each year, and may be conifers, broad-leaved evergreens, or opposite-leaved evergreens.


Having a main stem extending up through the top of the plant.


Plant food, either directly available, or which upon nitrification will be available for use by the plant. Many fertilizers (such as sheep manure and dried blood) contain plant food in an immediately soluble form for plant requirements or in a form (such as bone meal and lime rock) which does not become available until after a period of chemical reaction.

Field-grown Stock

Nursery-grown stock which is grown in the field, as distinguished from plants grown in pots, in cold frames, or under other especially favourable and artificial conditions, which tend to make better looking specimens, but usually less hardy plants. Thus, field-grown plants are often more desirable, even though not nearly as good looking specimens.


Short-lived or rapidly growing plants temporarily planted between permanent plants as in orchards or in mass plantings.

Fire blight

A bacterial disease.


A shallow box, averaging in depth from three to four inches, to receive soil in which to plant seeds, or to start cuttings.

Flowering on new wood

A term used in referring to plants which bear flowers on wood grown that same season. Hence they are mostly late-summer and fall-flowering plants and should be pruned in late winter or early spring before growth begins.

Flowering on old wood

A term used in referring to plants which bear flowers on wood formed the previous year, hence mostly spring-flowering plants. They should always be pruned immediately after the period of bloom is completed. (Never prune in early spring.)


v. To stimulate growth by artificial means such as heat, light, and fertilizers. Usually adopted for the purpose of obtaining fruits or flowers of unusual size or quantity either in season or out of season.