A minute portion of a fungus capable of germinating and growing into a new fungus.


An unusual variation from the normal type as commonly demonstrated in habits of growth and qualities of colour or size of flowers.


Planting of grass by inserting roots or whole plants in the ground as Bermuda grass is generally planted.


To plant alternately at equal distances in a row on either side of a middle line (as in the planting of hedges) or to arrange over any area at equal distances without any reference to any definite line.


Said of a tree the top of which is dead or nearly so, due to injury by accident or disease.


One of the three divisions of all plants, which consist of roots, stem, and leaves. The stem is the ascending axis of the plant.


A branch from the stem, as distinguished from the root system. A stolon roots, or is disposed to root, at intervals, thus forming a new plant.


To store seeds between layers of earth, leaves, or other material, or to bury them so as to keep them fresh and moist, but not so warm as to germinate.

Straw Manure

Manure which contains a portion of the straw which was used for bedding. Chiefly applied to the manure from stables in which straw was used as bedding, as distinguished from stables in which sand, sawdust, shavings, etc., are used as bedding.


That soil lying directly beneath the topsoil; chemically similar but physically different. Without special treatment it will not sustain vegetation, but on aeration will sustain some hardy plants most of which are vigorous weeds.


Adventitious shoots appearing on the roots or stems of plants. When they come on grafted plants, arising below the graft, they are of the same variety as the root, not the variety of the top.

Suffocating Root Systems

A cause of abnormal loss among newly transplanted stock, especially the shallow-rooted type of trees, such as beech, maple, elm, and birch. The smaller feeding roots are deprived of properly aerated soil because of excessive depth of fill over the roots or because of compact clay soil being filled around the base of the trees during the transplanting operation.


An injury to the cambium layer of a plant caused by the heat of the sun's rays; also a burning of the leaves of certain plants.

Suppressed Growth

Growth in shaded areas that has been retarded because of a lack of sunlight.


The operation of making firm and solid all earth filled around roots of newly transplanted stock. It helps to eliminate unnecessary air spaces.


A long central root running deep into the soil.


The condition of the edge of leaves of plants caused by too luxuriant growth followed by excessive heat and drought.