In transplanting work it is the mass of earth containing the roots of a plant, and it is transplanted with the plant to its new location.


The process of covering a ball of earth, containing the roots of a plant, with burlap or other bagging so that the plant may be safely transported a considerable distance without losing the earth from about its roots.

Bedding Plants

Herbaceous plants selected for the purpose of producing a solid ground cover of flowers or foliage as a part of a definite design in a refined garden or lawn development.


A bell-shaped glass used to cover small plants growing in the open, as a protection from wind and rain and frequent temperature changes.


Plants which require two years to produce ripened seed. They form buds at the crown of the root at the end of the first season. The next season they bear ripened seed, and the plants die.


A diseased condition caused by a parasitic fungus.

Bog Garden

A garden composed largely of bog-loving plants. A garden on a relatively low area consisting of a continuously wet, peaty soil, but not containing stagnant water.


The insertion of a bud from one plant (together with some live surrounding tissue) beneath the bark of another plant so that the cambium layers join and grow together.


A subterranean leaf-bud consisting usually of several fleshy scales.

Calcium Oxide

A compound resulting from the burning of limestone containing, when pure, 40 parts of calcium and 16 parts of oxygen by weight. It is also known as fresh burned or quicklime.


The new tissue which forms over a wound as over the end of a cutting; a protective measure provided in nature; but not always an indication that the cutting will produce roots.

Cambium, or cambium layer

The soft, very thin tissue lying between the bark and the woody tissue. This is the tissue from which new wood originates and is the only truly live portion of the stem of a plant. Plant food rises from roots to leaves through the cells on the inner half of the cambium layer and returns from the leaves downward as available plant food through cells on the outer half of the cambium layer.


An area attacked by a parasitic fungus.

Carpet bedding

A design of plants which form a close mat on the surface of the ground and respond to severe cutting back, as distinguished from ground-cover plants which may stand several inches above the ground.


Earthy material (occurring in nature), whose chief property is plasticity when wet. The size of particles varies from 1-5000 to 1-25000 of an inch in diameter. Bakes and cracks freely when dried out.

Clay Loam

A loam soil containing a predominance of clay.


A cluster of roots or bulbs or tubers capable of being divided into separate plants or of producing one large mass of plants resembling a single plant.