Plants growing year after year. Properly includes trees and shrubs; but in practice the term is limited to those plants which have no persistent stem above ground, but do nevertheless grow year after year, merely dying back to a crown bud each fall and sending out new stems each spring. Perennial herb is the proper term to express this meaning.


A region lying at the base of a mountain range.

Pleached Allee

A way framed on either side by symmetrical rows of closely planted trees or shrubs, so maintained that the branches of the continuous walls of close-growing foliage arch and interweave across the top of the way at a height of not less than seven or eight feet.


The planting of trees and shrubs in a pocket of fertile soil formed by digging a large hole in a more or less unfertile soil and refilling with fertile soil; frequently adopted to save expense of preparing beds and also to save unnecessary washing of an area of loose soil on slopes.


v. To remove the crown of a tree, usually at a point below the lowest branches, for the purpose of promoting a dense head of foliage or for rejuvenating the tree.

Preparation, of planting beds

This process normally includes plowing, spading, or grubbing, pulverizing the soil, applying manure and mixing with soil, and getting the beds into first-class condition to receive the plants. In clay soils it also includes removing clay to proper depth, and replacing with fertile topsoil.


To cause to multiply either by reproduction from seed or from cuttings.


The dipping of the roots of plants into a mixture of clayey soil and water having the consistency of molasses, in order to get close contact between root hairs and the soil. This protects the root hairs from injury in transportation, retards drying out of the roots, and promotes the acquiring of a speedy contact between roots and the soil into which the roots are placed.


Unslaked lime. In planting, any lime not wholly slaked is called quicklime. See calcium oxide.

Refined Lawns, Gardens, etc.

Said of a studied landscape arrangement which shows neatness and careful maintenance as contrasted to a naturalistic arrangement which permits each plant to grow in unrestrained competition with the surrounding plants.


To systematically prune old plants, either trees or shrubs, but more especially shrubs, so that at the end of two or three years the plant consists almost entirely of new wood grown within that period. This may also mean to give new life to old plants by cultivating and fertilizing the soil and by systematic pruning of the plant itself.


The artificial application of cold temperatures or other conditions whereby the resting period is prolonged.


A tendency to revert to parental or ancestral characteristics.