A term used in speaking of any plant whose root system cannot develop further because confined to a limited area. Thus, when the root system of a potted plant has filled the pot the plant is root-bound, or when the root system of stock planted in pockets has filled the pocket and the surrounding soil is so compact that the roots cannot penetrate it, the plant becomes root-bound.

Root Prune

To prune or cut the roots of a plant in order to check excessive growth of the woody tops; often done to secure a compact root system consisting of a mass of fine roots confined to a limited area in order to permit of the plant being transplanted with a greater degree of certainty that the plant will continue to live (See Plate VI, Page 34). Sometimes done merely to permit of the plant being more easily fed and decrease the probability of the plant food being lost in the greater area of soil, or taken up by plants for which it is not intended.

Root Stock

The subterranean runner or partially subterranean runner which is a part of the root system (not a part of the stem) which roots at intervals and sends up stems similar to a stolon. It is a part of the true root system, while a stolon is part of the stem.

Rotted Manure

Organic manure in which oxidation is so nearly completed that no appreciable amount of heat is given off and much of the material is available as plant food.


A slender stolon. (See Root Stock).


A diseased condition caused by a rust fungus.


A place of refuge in which birds or animals may continue their normal habits without fear of being molested.


A diseased condition of the bark of a woody plant caused either by the action of frost in bursting the cells or by excessive drying due to sun or wind action.


Any bud or shoot or other portion of the stem of a plant capable of propagation cut off and prepared for grafting.

Scraping tree trunks

The process of scraping off the loose bark from the trunk of a tree. The chief reason is to remove the hiding places of injurious insects.


The process of percolation, as ground water through the soil.


A small local centre of attack caused by parasitic fungi.


A woody perennial as distinguished from a tree mainly by its low stature and having several primary stalks arising at or near the ground.

Slaked Lime

Is fresh burnt lime reduced to a fine condition by the addition of water.


A diseased condition caused by a smut fungus.


That stratum of earth which is filled with the roots of grass, herbs, etc.

Sour Soil

An acid soil; a term generally applied to a soil which is not only acicd but deficient in soil aeration and in drainage.

Specimen Plant

A plant specially grown by itself so as to display it to best advantage or to allow the plant to assume normal and unrestricted growth.