In the preparation and development of lawn areas, especially on virgin soil, the land must be cleared and the stumps removed. It is preferable that stumps should either be pulled out by tractor or team, chopped out, or in the instance of pine lands, they should be burned out. The operation of blasting stumps, in order to remove them, leaves a considerable hole, which, when filled with loose soil, however thoroughly tamped, may cause a depression in the lawn on account of later settling. After the land is cleared and the stumps are removed, the lawn is brought to an even grade, and unless the soil is a rich yellow "topsoil" sand, it is advisable to spread a layer of muck, averaging from two to four inches in depth, over the entire lawn area. A deeper covering of muck would be better. The cost of excessive "mucking" is often the determining factor. This muck, which usually comes from the swamps, should be selected with great care. Not all so-called "muck" soil in swamps is adapted for use on lawns. It is often the case that swamp muck put on a high, dry, and sandy soil will, under the sun's rays, quickly dry out and become powdery. It is best to obtain, if possible, a sandy muck or black soil of a vegetable nature and not of a woody nature. This can be obtained from the edges of the hammock lands. This type of muck does not dry out. Good muck, taken from the upper layers of swamp areas, ought to be mixed thoroughly with a generous amount of lime and the entire mixture ought to remain for two or three months before it is applied to the lawn area. The mucks to be avoided are the woody and very sour types.