When the older stems of Araucaria brasiliana, Lamb, are wounded, they yield a water-white gum resin3) which is known in Brasil as Resina de pinhero. It yields about 6. p. c of oil, but nothing is known concerning its properties and composition.

1) Baker and Smith, A research on the pines of Australia, Sydney 1910, p. 376.

2) Ibidem p. 318.

3) Th. Peckolt, Pharm. Rundsch. (New York) 11 (1893), 133.

Turpentine Oils, Pine Tar Oils, Wood Turpentine Oils, and Pine Needle Oils.

Turpentine oil, in the restricted sense, may be defined as the oil obtained by distilling turpentine with either water or steam that has not been superheated'). Pine tar oil, Ger. kienol, is obtained by the dry distillation of pine stumps rich in resin. Hence the application of the term turpentine oil to such an oil is not correct. A modification of the pine tar oil has recently been produced in the United States. The stumps of the pines that have been killed by boxing are distilled with steam, frequently with superheated steam. In the chapters which follow it is designated as wood turpentine oil. The aromatic distillates, obtained by steam distillation of the needles and cones of various coniferous plants, are grouped under the collective name pine needle oils, Ger. Fichtennadelole.

1) The definition for turpentine oil, proposed by M. Vezes, Professor at the University at Bordeaux, and adopted by the International Congress for the Suppression of Adulterations, Paris 1909, reads as follows: "Turpentine oil is exclusively the product of the distillation (with water or non-superheated steam) of the resinous exudations of the several species of Pinus.

"It is a thin colorless liquid, occasionally slightly greenish or yellowish and possesses a characteristic odor.

"Under a pressure of 760 mm. of mercury, turpentine oil begins to boil at from 152 to 156°; at least 80 p. c. by weight should distil over below 164°.

"It should be neutral or slightly acid: The amount of acid in 1 kg. of oil should be neutralized by 1,5 g pure potassium hydroxide (Koh) {i.e. the acid number should not be larger than 1,5).

"Turpentine oil should not contain mineral oils or other products not resulting from the distillation of turpentine with water vapor. It may, however, contain small amounts, not to exceed ... p. c. of resin oil and colophony which result from the process of production (so-called normal adulterants, Fr. adulterants normaux, Ger. normale Verunreinigungeri). (The amount has not been definitely established, probably 2,5 p. c. will be adopted.)

"The turpentine oil obtained from Pinus maritima (France, Spain, Portugal) is lsevogyrate, aD - 29 to - 33°. The density determined at +25° should not be below 0,8575 (0,8655 at 15°).

"The oil obtained from Pinus halepensis (Greece, Algiers, Provence) is dextrogyrate, «D+38 to +41°; d25o not below 0,8550 (0,8630 at 15°).

"The American oil, which is obtained indiscriminately from several species of pine (P. palustris, P. heterophylla etc.) is dextrogyrate as well as lasvo-gyrate. The angle of rotation varies, but never exceeds the values given above for European oil; its density is not below 0,8560 at 25° (0,8640 at 15°)."

As to their chemical composition, the distillates from the turpentine, the wood, the leaves and cones of the Abietineas have, as a rule, the characteristic pinene in common. Most of the turpentine oils proper, also the pine tar oils, consist largely of this hydrocarbon or its isomers1). In the pine needle oils, however, pinene is frequently replaced by camphene, limonene and oxygenated constituents, notably bornyl acetate.

Turpentine Oils Proper Origin. For the commercial production of turpentine oil the representatives of the genus Pinus are used almost exclusively, rarely those of Abies, Picea, or Larix. The Pinaceae, which come primarily under consideration in this industry, grow principally in dense forests in the temperate zones. In their schizogenous ducts they contain a resinous balsam known as turpentine. When the tree is wounded artificially, the turpentine begins to flow. This is a pathological phenomenon and yields the "healing balsam" in considerable quantities. When the bark is removed and the cambial layer is injured, the turpentine exudes as a clear or turbid, viscid liquid, consisting of a solution of resin in volatile oil. When exposed to the air, this resinous sap changes to a granular, crystalline, honey-like consistence or it dries to a brittle mass.

Upon distillation of turpentine, whether by itself or with water vapor, turpentine oil passes over and colophony remains. This is purified by re-melting and straining.

1) The oil distilled from the turpentine of Pinus serotina consists chiefly of limonene (see p. 93); (other oils contain a large percentage of phellandrene or a hydrocarbon closely related to it; P. Sabiniana and P. Jeffreyi yield an oil consisting almost exclusively of n-heptane).

The principal countries of production, so far as the turpentine industry is concerned, are the United States of America, France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and Greece. In the world's commerce, American and French turpentine oil play the principal role at the present time. . Mot inconsiderable, however, are the amounts placed upon the market in recent years by Spain, whereas Greece supplies but little just at present. The turpentine oil produced in the other countries mentioned above is presumably consumed largely at home. The increased use of turpentine oil in many industries, in which it is indispensible, has given rise to the fear that the regions thus far opened up to production will not suffice in the long run. Hence attempts have been made to produce turpentine in other countries with large areas of pine forests, thus, e.g. in Algiers1), India-), Mexico3), Texas4) and San Domingo5). It is also reported that the Japanese intend to utilize the pine forests of Saghalien 6) for the production of turpentine oil.