Arsenic, from the same VA series, belongs to the cellular compartment. Its manifest A inducing or anti D effect was noted in all compartments if the amount administered was high enough. It is interesting that Bac. anthracis, under the influence of arsenious acid, changes to cocci highly irregular in dimension, with intensive Gram positive staining, and a creamy character of cultures. (182)

The carcinogenic effect of arsenic has been widely investigated by many authors. In our experiments, arsenic in various preparations did not show a carcinogenic effect. It did, however, enhance the effect of various carcinogens, and thus appears to be an active co carcinogen. Its action at the cellular level would explain this effect.

Aluminum, from the III A series, belongs to the metazoic compartment. In minimal doses, it produces a D systemic offbalance. Boron, as boric acid, shows few effects other than in gastrointestinal disorders. This effect may be due to the fact that it belongs to the organism compartment. Insoluble compounds of boron appeared to be useful in the treatment of diarrhea.

The effect of members of the VIIA series appears to be largely correlated with a direct action upon the double bonds of the nonpolar group of the fatty acids.

Iodine

The influence of iodine was rather extensively studied because of its relationship to tumors and because it belongs to the nuclear compartment. Before the days of pathological diagnosis of cancer and serological methods of detecting syphilis, iodine salts were used to differentiate between gummatous and tongue cancers. This was the so called "pierre de touche" treatment, since iodine was assumed to favorably influence luetic lesions but markedly enhance neoplastic growths.

In view of the dualistic concept of cancer, we were interested in ascertaining whether the effects of iodine were related to one of the two off balances present, and if this was so, to try to take therapeutic advantage of it. Iodine was administered principally in the form of potassium iodide solutions and Lugol's solution. In most cases with alkaline pain, the intensity diminished and pain even disappeared soon after iodine administration. In several cases, doses as low as 3-10 drops of Lugol's solution were sufficient to induce such an effect for hours. However, larger doses or repeated doses produced effects that were distinctly undesirable. Edema within the neoplastic lesion was increased by the administration of iodine, sometimes to such an extent as to require discontinuing its use before any other changes in the tumor could be noted.

Research also was done with lipid and lipoid molecules incorporating iodine. The purpose was to determine whether these molecules would act more selectively upon abnormal cells and induce local toxic effects. 9, 10-di iodostearic acid and 9, 10, 12, 13-tetra iodostearic acid were prepared and tested in animals and humans. No differences were noted between these substances and inorganic iodine preparations in influence upon systemic analyses, pain or tumor growth, in both animals and humans.