Cytological studies have revealed that some characteristics of the cell, other than those typifying the cancerous anomaly itself, exhibit dual patterns. For the cellular level, they could ultimately be related to changes in the aging processes. In tumoral foci having an acid pain pattern, cytological characteristics indicate a prolonged cellular youth. A round aspect of the nucleus, with a fine texture of chromatin and well separated nucleolus, and a basophyl cytoplasm represent major characteristics of cellular youth. In lesions with an alkaline pain pattern, the cells show rapid early aging. The tendency to lobulation of the nucleus, to separation of chromatin and formation of clumps, to cytoplasmatic oxyphily and the appearance of azurophyl granulae characterize such aging. Rapid aging was seen to lead to premature cellular death through piknosis and karyorrhexis. Opposite cellular aging processes could be further related to differences seen in evolution of tumors. Rapid aging of cells, associated with alkaline pain patterns, results in necrotic tumors and ulceration of superficial lesions. Frequently, it could be noted that a change from acid pattern to alkaline occurs and is accompanied by a melting away of massive tumors and their replacement usually by ulceration.

Tissular Level

As seen above, pain, dyspnea, vertigo and itching can be considered tissue level manifestations which show dualism. Additionally, the nasal pH (Note 5) deviates either toward acid or alkaline values and these deviations can be correlated with similar acid base changes at the tissular level. These measurements are useful as a diagnostic criterion for tissue level changes.

Organic Level

The same dualism observed at the cellular and tissue levels also was found in signs and symptoms involving the organ level. Dual patterns were found for dysfunctions of various organs. Insomnia and somnolence, diarrhea and constipation, oliguria and polyuria, tachycardia and bradycardia, all represent examples of dualism at the organic level.

The dualism evident for the length of persistence of a wheal (Note 6) induced by intracutaneous injection of a saline solution was also related to the organ level with the skin considered to be an organ. In normal subjects, the resorption of the wheal is completed in about 15-20 minutes. In one group the resorption time is short, even reduced to a few minutes. In other groups, on the contrary, the resorption time is greatly prolonged, the wheal sometimes being present even after more than 90 minutes.

Systemic Level

Studies of dualism at this level covered temperature variations and changes in various blood and urine values.

Temperature

Two patterns of temperature changes were found in cancer patients. For oral temperature, 37°C (98.6°F) was considered as the reference value. Temperatures measured several times during the day showed that, for many patients, the values were fixed either above or below this reference line. Normal individuals exhibit daily variations of temperature; the curve not only crosses the reference line but also shows broad changes. In contrast, variations usually are smaller in abnormal cases, and the curve remains on one or the other side of the reference line. Figures 37, 38 and 39 show examples of such curves. The two patterns have been found to be independent of type or site of origin of tumors. We will discuss the significance of temperature patterns later.

The curve of oral temperature of a case with generalized metastatic melanoma

Fig. 37. The curve of oral temperature of a case with generalized metastatic melanoma is persistently above the 98.6'F (37'C) line, which corresponds to the average value of normal individuals.

Fig. 38. The curve of the oral temperature of a patient with generalized metastases of adenocarcinoma of the breast shows values constantly below the 98.6'F average line.

The curve of the oral temperature of a patient with generalized metastasesCurve of the oral temperature of a patient with bronchogenic cancer

Fig. 39. Curve of the oral temperature of a patient with bronchogenic cancer with abdominal metastases shows values constantly below 98.6°F (37°C) average line.