The analysis of the available data concerning subnuclear particles shows that while an unsuspected number of different particles are progressively discovered, no satisfactory relationship between them—from the point of view of the organization—can be established. The recognition of a pattern concerning their organizational relationship would fill an important gap in the knowledge of this entire field. The fact that the same pattern governs the organization in general, from atomic nuclei up, has induced us to attempt through an extrapolation, to search it for the subnuclear realm.

As seen above, the study of the organization has permitted us to define the following concepts as characteristic for the organizational pattern:

1) All the entities in nature can be identified by their place in a hierarchic organization, in which the entities are connected through a superior inferior relationship. An entity enters in the formation of other entities which are considered "superior" to it, and is formed by entities which are hierarchically "inferior" to it.

2) Each entity is formed by a principal and a secondary part, the principal part being represented by entities hierarchically inferior to it, while the secondary part, by elements taken from the immediate environment in which the entities forming the principal part have existed.

3) Entities with similar principal parts belong to a same level. In the hierarchic progression, there are entities of the same level which are grouped together to constitute the principal part of an entity of a level immediately superior.

4) From the energetic point of view, the principal part in the organization of each entity appears more positive than the secondary part to which it is bound.

5) The hierarchic progression of the organization from one entity to that immediately superior to it, is made through two processes with two different intervening forces. Forces of Columbian nature bring and keep the electrostatically opposite principal and secondary parts together. A new entity appears however only when quantum forces intervene, organizing the relationship of the two constituents and especially their reciprocal movement. The immediate aim of this organization is to prevent a reciprocal total annihilation of the two parts, positive principal and negative secondary which would occur if the electrostatic forces alone would be present.

6) In the hierarchic progressive development of the organization for each passage from one level to the immediately superior, these two kinds of forces—electrostatic and quantum—were seen to intervene alternatively. The fulfillment of one force is seen to induce the appearance of the other. From an energetic point of view, an entity will appear inactive when its electrostatic forces are fulfilled but with quantum forces present, or energetically active with quantum forces fulfilled and the electrostatic forces present. The example of atoms and ions is a typical illustration of this relationship for the atom level.

As a work hypothesis, we tried to apply the above schematically presented concept of hierarchic organization, to the subnuclear realm. It is only by using analogies that such an attempt can be made. The scarce data available seem to confirm however, this view. According to it, the electron and positron would represent the lowest entities of the subnuclear realm with the smallest mass and opposite charge. If these two corpuscles, when attracted, encounter one another, they will annihilate each other with liberation of two photons. This annihilation is prevented however, although the two corpuscles remain bound together through their electrostatic forces by the intervention of quantum forces organizing their reciprocal movements. The result is a new entity, of a level immediately superior to the positron, in which the electron is kept electrostatically bound to the positron but kept into an orbital movement. Hypothetically, it can even be conceived that through differences in the resulting movement, more than one solution would exist.

Residual Charge

Due to the intervention of this movement, the resulting electrostatic neutralization between positron and electron is incomplete. A "residual" positive charge would characterize the new entity. This charge alone would not be sufficient to keep another electron by neutralizing its charge. However several such entities grouped together can have the sum of their "residual positive charge" such as to be compensated by a new electron. The two electrostatic forces, that of the group of entities and that of the new electron will keep these two parts together, while the quantum forces will again organize the movement of this new added electron, preventing this time again the annihilation of these two parts. A new level, this time of the third order, is thus realized. It is easy to conceive that several solutions can exist for each case, since the sum of the residual positive charges does not correspond exactly to that of the negative electrons. Several solutions appear thus possible. Besides this in which a small group of entities would be compensated by one electron, a higher number of entities would be kept together with the sum of their residual charges approaching that of two or more electrons. For each level, several such solutions are conceivable. With the progressive passage toward higher levels, the number of the solutions increases.

The fact that the two electrostatic positive and negative parts of the entities do not compensate perfectly, leads to the possibility that the compensation takes place either with an excess or lack of negative charge.

The difference is induced by an additional electron. An entity with a positive or negative charge would result. With one or the other charge prevailing, two energetically active, positive or negative forms, differing by the mass of an electron exist, for each entity. The analysis confirms this existence.

According to the hierarchic organization, the different particles of the subnuclear realm can be separated in various levels. Promezons, mezons, protons would represent such levels—each one with respective neutral, positive and negative entities. The same as for the higher levels—atoms and molecules—the different entities forming each of the subnuclear levels will differ through the number of the entities entering in the principal parts. A systematization of the subnuclear realm on this basis can be confirmed by the fact that the different entities of a level represent sums or multiples of the entities of their inferior level in the same way that the different nuclei represent multiples of entities of the protonic level protons and neutrons or the different molecule multiple of entities of the atomic level.

In the progression of the hierarchic organization, it is seen that the passage from one level to the other results in an exponential increase in the numbers of the kinds of entities (from around 100 different atoms it passes to around 100,000 different kinds of molecules, to millions of kinds of genes and trillions of individuals. This fact supposes that the number of the existing particles decrease with each inferior level, in the subnuclear realm, to arrive to two—positron and electron—at the bottom of this realm.