Alternate operation of electrostatic and quantum forces leads to the organization of atoms into molecules. The quantum forces in the molecules intervene to permit organization of these entities so that the constituents are maintained at proper distances and positions. The result is electrostatic neutrality. The appearance of new quantum forces that maintain the constituents, through their organized movement, at certain distances and in certain positions, insures not only the establishment but also the stability of the new formations. Besides vibrational movements, other more definite movements can be recognized in the new molecule. When two or more atoms become associated by shared electron bonds, the shared electrons no longer are confined to one atom but are displaced from their own orbits. Under certain conditions, electrons can travel between two or more atoms, or even surround the molecule as a whole. These movements which correspond to the intervention of quantum forces give stability to the molecule.

The fulfillment of intramolecular quantum forces will affect molecules in a similar way as fulfillment of atomic quantum forces affects atoms. By a process similar to that governing motion of electrons in atoms, motion of entities that enter into the structure of molecules is also controlled. The fulfillment of quantum forces is achieved in various ways. For example, there may be localization of the movement of electrons in the molecule. As the result of relative immobilization of these electrons, electrostatic forces appear in the molecule as a whole.

The relatively immobilized electrons can be considered as being related to the molecule as an entity, since they cannot definitely be attributed to any of the constituent atoms. As a result, the molecule becomes electrostatically active.

The positions of electrons and even of atoms in molecules can be understood easily by considering events at the molecular level in the same way we considered those at the atom level. The molecule whose electrostatic forces are balanced is neutral. However, it has active quantum forces which govern the position and mobility of the constituents and the relative positions of bound atoms or of certain electrons in the entity. Fulfillment of molecular quantum forces is realized through changes in movement of electrons which lead to loss or gain of one or more electrons, protons, ions or even groups of atoms. This leads to appearance of electrostatic forces and the molecule becomes an active entity. In the molecule, as in the atom, quantum forces can be fulfilled in more ways than one—although one may represent a preferred situation. For this reason, activation of molecules, through changes in mobility of molecular electrons, has to be considered on a statistical basis.

The electrostatic coulombian character of an activated molecule is the result of the changes in mobility of the electrons. Positive or negative areas in the molecule develop according to the abundance or dearth of electrons, at these positions. The new electronic arrangements in a molecule can be seen as representing a preparatory step for the molecule to become an active entity in the same way that atoms are activated and become ions. The molecule loses or gains one or more electrons, (or protons, ions or groups of atoms) and becomes electrostatically active, with positive or negative charge, depending upon the nature of the lost or gained entity, and this is the outcome of the fulfillment of the molecular quantum forces. This is illustrated by the following examples concerning the benzene molecule, and the carboxyl and hydroxonium radicals, in which we shall limit ourselves to changes produced by quantum and electrostatic forces.

In the benzene molecule, which is electrostatically neutral, the electrostatic positive and negative forces of the constituent atoms are balanced. However, all the electrons are not in fixed positions. The π electrons of the double bonds move around in the molecule. Because the molecule is closed, this movement is circular, thus accounting for the stability of the molecule, recognized in part by the equal reactivity of all its carbon atoms which is encountered under certain conditions and results in the Kekulian forms.

The fulfillment of the quantum forces accounts for a kind of relative fixation of these wandering π electrons which is responsible for the other structures of the benzene molecule different from the Kekulian ones. It is this localization of electrons with the capacity to enter into further reactions which results in the activation of the molecule as seen in the resulting Dewar structures which in turn accounts for active centers such as ortho, meta, and para positions. These excited molecules, electrostatically active, can readily take part in chemical reactions. Study of the mobile π electrons in many other molecules allows us to understand their role in providing molecular stability, while their relative localization favors the appearance of electrostatically active centers in the molecule and resulting reactivity. Here again, localization of electrons opens up many possible avenues to activation.

The carboxyl and hydroxonium ions represent typical examples of another kind of activation. Inactive carboxyl occurs when the quantum forces cause the electrons to wander continously between the two oxygens of carboxyl. Because of this electronic condition, the H atom seems no longer to be bound to either of the O atoms, but is situated between both; this form corresponds to the electrostatically fulfilled condition. With fulfillment of quantum forces, the wandering electron takes a more fixed position at one or the other oxygen. When this occurs, the H+ ion leaves the carboxyl group, and the carboxyl acquires a negative electrostatic equilibrium, leading to further combining activity. This fulfillment of the quantum forces is responsible not only for the appearance of an activated group of electrostatic character, but also for the existence of two structures, each one with another active oxygen.

A similar activation takes place when a molecule acquires an ion, as seen for the hydroxonium ion. Water can, under certain circumstances, bind a proton resulting from a hydrogen atom which has lost its electron. This bond is achieved through a valency bridge, and can be regarded as the fulfillment of molecular quantum forces. Different structures can be considered as resulting from the fixation of the hydrogen bridge in different positions in relation to the tetrahedral constitution of the oxygen atom. They help to give this bridge bond its high resistance.

Bonding Of Molecules

Electrostatic forces in radicals or activated molecules may be further balanced when new bonds are realized between entities with opposite electrostatic forces. Bonding of molecules having electrostatically excited centers may or may not be of chemical nature which is considered to correspond to changes in the structure of the molecules. More often, only a physical bond between molecules takes place, in which case there are no changes in molecular structure. Both types of bonding result in fulfillment of the electrostatic forces through a balanced neutralization, but bonding alone is not sufficient to establish a new entity. A new entity, with structural and functional individuality, apparendy is realized only when quantum forces appear and establish definite relationships between the bonded constituents' molecules, placing them in certain positions and organizing their movements. The holistic concept emphasizes the difference between molecules or radicals bound only by the fulfillment of their electrostatic forces of general coulombian character, and the new entities resulting from the appearance of specific quantum forces proper to them. Here again, then, at the molecular as at the atomic level, progress in organization is achieved by alternate operation of electrostatic and quantum forces.

Polymolecular Formations*

When an electrostatically active molecule or radical binds an electron, ion or even a small radical, the resulting entity is still considered a simple molecule. The group resulting from the bonding of several polyatomic radicals is a complex molecule. Like simple molecules, complex molecules also can group together and the bonding of several leads to still more complex formations, the macromolecules. In turn, macromolecules also can be grouped and the bonding of two or more produces polymolecular formation. Thus, organization progresses from simple molecules to polymolecular formations, first through the grouping together of similar entities. A new entity appears when one of these groups binds a respective secondary part.

* All three terms—macromolecules, polymolecules and complex molecules—are chosen only for didactic convenience.