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Progress Against Cancer | by The National Advisory Cancer Council



Progress Against Cancer 1969 is the third public report issued by the National Advisory Cancer Council under authority of the legislation by which it was established, the National Cancer Institute Act of 1937. In accordance with its policy, the Council presents the report in two parts. Part I discusses progress against cancer in general, with emphasis on noteworthy developments of the year. Part II is devoted to a review in depth of progress in chemotherapy research—the search for new and more effective drugs and techniques for the medical management of cancer in man. A summary of Part II is provided for the general reader who is not immediately in need of the more technically detailed information. A selected reading list is also provided at the end of Part II.

TitleProgress Against Cancer
AuthorNational Advisory Cancer Council
PublisherU. S. Government Printing Office
Year1969
Copyright1969, National Advisory Cancer Council
AmazonProgress Against Cancer
-Preface
The role of the Federal Government as a partner in public and private support of cancer research and related programs was strengthened in 1968 when the administration of biomedical science and educati...
-Part I. Cancer Research And Control. Drug Treatment Of Leukemia
Progress against cancer should be measured by several criteria: increased knowledge of the fundamental nature of malignant disease; identification and control of factors involved in cause and preventi...
-Long-Term Survival Rates for Cancer Patients
Progress in detecting and treating specific forms of cancer was an important subject for discussion at the Sixth National Cancer Conference in Denver, Colorado last September, a quadrennial meeting sp...
-Virus Studies
Virus studies continued to dominate the field of research on cancer causation. Many investigators were seeking to confirm the exciting results of work by Philadelphia scientists who reported evidence ...
-The Lung Cancer Epidemic
Cancer of the lung, a largely preventable disease caused mainly by cigarette smoking, continues to increase at an alarming rate. It claimed about 55,000 lives in the United States in 1968 and ranked a...
-Epidemiologic Studies Of Cancer Causation
Studies of population groups have provided, during the past year, clues to the causes of vari-ious kinds of cancer. A report on stomach cancer in Iceland and another on skin cancer in Taiwan highlight...
-Fundamental Studies on Cancer
Since cancer is a disease in which some body cells seem to be out of control, knowledge of cellular biochemistry is basic to ultimate understanding of the cancerous process. Studies of deoxyribonucl...
-Controlling Cancer
Organized efforts to control cancer as a public health problem are sponsored by Federal, State, and local health agencies and voluntary health organizations. These programs are devoted largely to publ...
-Lung Cancer Research And Control
One of the most difficult aspects of the lung cancer problem is the lack of effective ways to detect this disease at an early stage. Health agencies such as the American Cancer Society, and the Nation...
-Uterine Cancer
For cancer of the uterine cervix, the most effective case-finding device—particularly in large populations—is the cytologic, or cell, examination popularly known as the Pap test. With the aid of gra...
-Cancer-related Activities And Training
Efforts to control cancer are being made in many other ways. They include development of a camera so small that it can be swallowed and provide pictures of the gastric area; evaluation of the potentia...
-Part II. Research On Cancer Chemotherapy. Summary
During the 1960's, the ability of drugs to produce complete, long-term remissions, perhaps cures, in some patients with widespread, progressive cancer has been unequivocally established. A significant...
-Research On Cancer Chemotherapy. Part 2
Hormones are used to attempt to create a hormonal environment in a patient which will cause regression of his cancer. Male and female sex hormones and hormones such as cortisone are useful as cancer d...
-Research On Cancer Chemotherapy. Part 4
The use of intermittent schedules of drugs to achieve selective toxicity has been called pulsing therapy. Such pulsing is intended to schedule the administration of a drug at such intervals as to pr...
-Part II. The Modern Era Begins
Within a few short years, drug treatment of cancer has become an essential part of the practice of medicine. For many patients with different types of cancer, physicians are prescribing drugs with the...
-The First Milestone
The modern era of cancer chemotherapy research, rooted in laboratory observation and experimentation, is barely 30 years old. It had its origin shortly before World War II with the work of C. B. Huggi...
-The First Treatment For Leukemia
The first glimmering that acute leukemia, an important cause of death due to cancer in children, could respond to drug therapy came in November 1947. At that time, S. Farber and his colleagues of the ...
-End Of A Decade
By 1955 the pace of drug discovery was accelerating. A number of new types of alkylating agents, drugs whose mechanism of action is similar to that of nitrogen mustard, had been synthesized and found ...
-Some Progress, Many Problems
With the discovery of a handful of drugs capable of temporarily restraining the relentless progress of cancer, curative chemotherapy was recognized as a scientifically feasible goal. The problems faci...
-Some Cancers Are Highly Responsive. Choriocarcinoma
About 12 years ago National Cancer Institute scientists reported encouraging evidence that drugs could substantially suppress metastatic (widespread) choriocarcinoma, a rare, highly malignant type of ...
-Acute Leukemia In Children
The number and quality of first brief, temporary remissions produced in 1947 in acute lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia, which is the form that occurs most frequently in children, have been grea...
-Acute Leukemia and Effective Drugs
Currently, eight drugs are effective for the treatment of acute leukemia of childhood. With the exception of BCNU each drug alone has produced a significant percentage of complete remissions (temporar...
-Wilms' Tumor
Although a rare disease, Wilms' tumor, a type of kidney cancer probably of congenital origin, is one of the most common abdominal tumors found in infants and children. The cancer metastasizes in 60 to...
-Burkitt's Tumor
This disease, also known as Burkitt's lymphoma, is the most common cancer of African children. D. Burkitt, a British surgeon, was the first to report extensive studies of the disease in 1958 while at ...
-Testicular Cancer
Although it is a rare type of cancer, representing fewer than two percent of all malignant growths in human beings, cancer of the testis constitutes an important form of malignancy in young adult men ...
-Hodgkin's Disease
Hodgkin's disease is one of several malignant disorders of the lymphatic and other tissues that play a part in an individual's ability to fight infection. Young adults, aged 20 to 40, are most often a...
-Gains Are Small Against Major Cancers
Cancers of the lung, colon-rectum, and breast are the common types of malignancy in the United States. At present, patients with these diseases must look to the surgeon or radiotherapist for cure. The...
-Lung Cancer
Lung cancer will strike about 61,000 persons and cause 55,000 deaths in the United States this year. About 46,000 victims will be men and 9,000, women. A rare disease at the turn of the century, lung ...
-Cancer Of The Colon And Rectum
Cancers of the colon (large intestine) and rectum together make up the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, claiming an estimated 45,000 lives annually. Scientists believe that m...
-Breast Cancer
It is estimated that breast cancer will kill 28,100 American women this year. This disease is the major cause of cancer death in women in the United States and the leading cause of death from all caus...
-Stomach Cancer
Although the occurrence of stomach cancer is declining in the United States, the only body organs giving rise to a greater number of cancer deaths are the lung, colon-rectum, and breast. An estimated ...
-Cancer Of The Prostate
One of the most common forms of cancer in men, prostatic cancer, strikes about 35,000 men in the United States each year and kills 17,000, but it affects relatively few men under 35 years of age. ...
-Lymphomas
About 22,000 new cases of malignant lymphoma will be diagnosed in the United States this year, and there will be 17,000 deaths. Lymphomas are cancers of the part of the circulatory system that plays a...
-Cancer Of The Kidney And Bladder
An estimated 32,000 new cases of cancer of the kidney and bladder will occur in the United States this year, and there will be approximately 15,000 deaths. Blood in the urine and difficulty of urinati...
-Cancer Of The Uterus
The third most deadly form of cancer in women, cancer of the uterus, or womb, will be detected in about 44,000 American women this year. It will kill about 14,000. More than two-thirds of the cancers ...
-Cancer Is A Disease Of The Cell
One of the most widely accepted hypotheses in cancer research is that the initial event leading to malignancy is a change in a single cell. Following this, there may be a series of events within succe...
-The Cell. Structure
When stained with chemical dyes for examination under a microscope, cancer cells usually show enlarged nuclei and often more than one nucleolus, a spherical body within the nucleus. The cytoplasm, the...
-The Cell. Continued
One of the most important groups of proteins are enzymes, which catalyze the chemical reactions in living cells. Enzymes are indispensable for the life of cells, since they enable their processes to t...
-Drugs Attack Cell Chemistry
From the beginning of the modern era of cancer chemotherapy research, attempts have been made to learn how cancer drugs attack cells. The classification system described in this section has been devel...
-Antimetabolites
Substances that resemble structurally essential constituents of normal metabolic processes in the cell fall within the large number of cancer drugs known as antimetabolites. Such a compound is taken u...
-Hormones
The importance of the steroid hormones in cancer chemotherapy lies in the fact that cancers arising from tissues modified by these substances may retain some of the hormonal responsiveness of their ti...
-Plant Alkaloids
Two drugs of current clinical interest in this group are vinblastine and vincristine, alkaloids derived from the periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea). The precise action of these drugs is not well understoo...
-Antibiotics. Other Drugs
Actinomycin D (also called dactinomycin), one of a family of structurally related actino-mycins isolated from a soil fungus of the genus, Streptomyces, is the most widely used of this class of drugs. ...
-Drugs Attack Cell Populations
In the past several years, a few investigators have undertaken new approaches to the problem of trying to understand how drugs attack cells and how they may be utilized more effectively in killing can...
-Studies Of Leukemia And Lymphoma Cells
One of the results of studies of cell populations was the finding that a given dose of a drug killed the same percentage of tumor cells, regardless of the size of the cell population. For example, the...
-Studies Of Solid Tumor Cells
In patients, substantial drug effects, approaching cure, have been observed in acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's tumor, and some childhood solid tumors. These a...
-Treatment Schedules Improved. Combination Chemotherapy
Many of the recent advances in the treatment of the leukemia* and lymphomas have been associated with schedules consisting of two or more drugs given concomitantly or sequentially. Agents that produce...
-"Pulsing" Drug Therapy
The use of intermittent schedules of drugs to achieve selective toxicity has been called pulsing therapy. Such pulsing is intended to schedule the administration of a drug at such intervals as to ...
-Auxiliary Therapy
Auxiliary, or supportive, therapy to overcome problems resulting from the disease process or drug side effects has been developed along with the drug treatment techniques. Results have been particular...
-Seeking New Drugs
The search for new drugs ideally requires an accurate system for prediction of therapeutic effectiveness of candidate compounds in patients, an accurate system for prediction of toxicity, and a knowle...
-New Candidate Compounds
A number of new materials have progressed recently to preclinical toxicological studies or toward clinical trials. Among these was a compound, Lapachol, which had a high degree of activity in the Walk...
-Drugs Used Against Cancer
Common name Other names Leukemia Acute Chronic Breast cancer Chorio carcinoma Colon cancer Hodgkins disease Gra...







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previous page: Research In Physiopathology As Basis Of Guided Chemotherapy With Special Application To Cancer | by Emanuel Revici
  
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next page: Chemistry Of Chelation In Cancer | by Arthur Furst