Abdominal Regions

The belly is anatomically divided into three transverse zones, an upper, a middle, and a lower. Each lino is divided, by perpendicular lines, into three compartments or regions; a middle and two side. They are thus named:-

Epigastric Region

The middle region of the upper zone, immediately over the small end of the stomach. The two side regions of this zone, situated under the cartilages of the ribs, are called the hypochondriac.

2. Umbilical Region

The middle region of the middle zone, immediately over the navel. The two side regions of this zone, situated over the loins, are called the lumbar.

Adhesive Inflammation

The middle region of the lowest zone, situated below the stomach. - The two side regions of this zone are called the iliac.

Abnormal

Irregular; that which deviates from the usual order.

Abscess

A gathering or boil.

Absorbents

Two distinct sets of vessels, which absorb and convey fluids. These are the lacteals, which take up the chyle from the alimentary canal; and the lymphatics, which pervade almost every part of the body, which they take up in the form of lymph.

Abstergents

Lotions, or other applications for cleansing sores.

Acclimation

Naturalization to a foreign or unusual climate.

Acerbity

Sourness with harshness.

Acescent

A term applied to substances which become sour spontaneously, as vegetable or animal juices, or infusions.

Acid

A compound which is capable of uniting in definite proportions with alkaline bases, and which when liquid, or in a state of solution, has a sour taste, or reddens litmus paper. The names of acids, formed from the same base, vary in their terminations, according to the quantity of oxygen which they are presumed to contain. Thus, Acids which terminate in ic denote the maximum of oxidation; in ous, a lower proportion; those which begin with hyper (above), denote an excess of oxidation; with hypo (under), the lowest proportion.

The Acids which terminate in ic form compounds which termi-ate in ate; those which terminate in ous form compounds which terminate in ite; thus Sulphuric Acid forms salts which are called Sulphates, while Sulphurous Acid forms salts which are called Sulphites.

Acidulous

Slightly acid.

Acme

The top or height of anything.

Acrid

Burning and irritating.

Actual Cautery - Iron, heated red-hot and used as a cautery or caustic.

Acupuncture

The insertion of needles into the skin or flesh.

Acute

Diseases are called acute which have a severe character, have a rapid progress and short duration. Pain is called acute when it is sharp and pungent.

Adhesion

The process by which parts which have been separated (as in a cut) unite.

Adhesive Inflammation

Called by Galen, Union by the first intention. A term used to express the union of two surfaces, by bringing them in contact with each other.

Adipose

Fatty.

Adult

That which has reached the period when the body has acquired its full development.

Affusion

The pouring water over the surface of the body, the head, etc.

After-Birth

The placenta and the membranes of the ovum, so called from their being expelled after the birth of the child.

After-Pains

The pains caused by the contractions of the womb, which are continued for some time after delivery.

Aggregate

A body or mass made up of smaller bodies or masses.

Albumen

Albumen is of two kinds, animal and vegetable. Animal Albumen exists in two forms; the liquid and the solid. In the liquid state, it is a thick, glairy fluid, constituting the principal part of white of egg. In the solid state, it is contained in several textures of the body, as the cellular membrane, the skin, glands and vessels.

Vegetable Albumen

Closely resembles Animal Albumen, and appears to be an ingredient of emulsive seeds generally, and to exist in the sap of many plants. It has been found in wheat, rye, barley, peas, and beans.

Alimentary Canal

The entire passage through which the food passes; extending from the mouth to the anus.

Alkali

An old name for potash. A substance which unites with acids in definite proportions, and changes vegetable blues to green.

Alkalescent

A term applied to substances in which alkaline properties are becoming developed. The term is generally applied to the urine.

Aloetics

Medicines in which aloes is the principal ingredient.

Alteratives

Medicines which very gradually re-establish a healthy habit, functions, etc.

Amputation

The removal of a limb, or other part of the body, by means of the knife.

Anaemia

A state of bloodlessness.

Anaesthesia

Loss of the sense of touch.

Analeptic

Food or medicine calculated to improve nutrition and restore strength.

Analysis

The process of separating any compound substance into its constituent parts,

Anaphrodisia

Impotence; incapability of sexual intercourse.

Anhydrous

Without water; a term applied to crystals and gases which are deprived of water.

Animalcules

Microscopic animals.

Anodynes

Remedies against pain.

Anomalous

Irregular; a term applied to diseases, in which the symptoms are irregular.

Antacids

Remedies against acidity.

Antidotes

Counter-poisons; substances that will counteract the effects of poisons.

Anthelmintics

Remedies against worms.

Antilithics

Remedies against stone.

Antiphlogistics

Remedies against inflammation.

Antiscorbutics

Remedies against scurvy.

Antiseptics

Remedies against putrefaction.