Copper

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Blue Vitriol and Verdigris are the best known' salts of Copper; but Brunswick Green and Scheele's Green are equally poisonous. The symptoms of poisoning by all the salts are similar, and the same treatment will answer. Violent vomiting is usually produced, and this is sometimes so effectual as to expel the poison from the stomach. The matter emitted is usually of a blue or green colour; there is pain in the abdomen, with diarrhoea; and sometimes spasms, and convulsions and death.

Treatment

The vomiting caused by the poison should be assisted by drinking plentifully of warm water, milk or gruel. Sugar has been strongly recommended in cases of poisoning by Copper; and white of eggs, if taken in large quantity, will be serviceable. They may be beaten up with sugar, and a cupful taken at short intervals. Strong coffee will also be beneficial.

Corrosive Sublimate

Symptoms Of Poisoning

An acrid, harsh, metallic taste, with burning in the throat; sometimes copious salivation; great anxiety; tearing pains of the stomach and bowels; frequent vomiting; the matter vomited frequently mixed with blood; diarrhoea; pulse small, hard and quick; frequent faintings; great debility; difficult respiration; cold sweats; cramps; convulsions and death.

Treatment

Give large quantities of white of egg mixed in water, in repeated doses at short intervals, say every few minutes. If eggs are not at hand, take a mixture of soap and water and wheat flour. Both of these remedies change the poison into Calomel, which may be worked off by the bowels. A dose of Castor Oil may be afterwards given; and the patient should live, for some time on gruel, milk and broth.

Iodide Of Mercury

Symptoms Of Poisoning

The symptoms are nearly similar to those caused by poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate.

Treatment

The same as for poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate, as given above.

Iodide Of Potash

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Uneasiness in the stomach, followed by nausea, and burning pain; vomitings, headache, giddiness, tremors.

Treatment

First take freely of mucilage of starch, say three or four teacupfuls; afterwards empty the stomach by emetics of Ipecacuanha or Mustard.

Iodine

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Heat and tightness of the throat; nausea; offensive eructations; vain efforts at vomiting; colic; quickening of the pulse; diarrhoea; tremblings; great thirst; slight convulsions; death. When poisoning occurs from small doses long continued, the emaciation and debility are very great.

Treatment

Take freely of mucilage of starch; then empty the stomach by emetics. The inflammatory symptoms to be treated as a simple case of inflammation of the stomach.

Lead

And its preparations: White Lead, Red Lead, Sugar of Lead, Litharge.

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Obstinate costiveness; violent colic; vomiting; the pulse small and hard; laborious breathing and trembling; terminating in paralysis of the extremities, and occasionally in death. The gums acquire a blue tinge.

Treatment

Take as early as possible a dose of Epsom or Glauber Salts, dissolved in a quantity of water. If salts are not to be had, drink vinegar and water, or lemon juice and water. Then empty the stomach by an emetic. Afterwards drink plentifully of gruel, milk, starch water or weak broth; and a dose of Castor Oil may be taken.

Lime (Quick Lime.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Great heat of the throat, nausea, vomiting, and violent colic.

Treatment

Drink plentifully, as quickly as possible, of vinegar and lemon juice, mixed with water. Afterwards drink freely of gruel or thin starch, or flour mixed in water.

Nitre. Saltpetre

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Heat and pain in the stomach, vomiting and purging of blood, great prostration, convulsions, and sometimes death.

Treatment

Remove the poison from the stomach, by means of emetics, give the patient plenty of oil, gruel, starch and water, and flour and water to drink, and, when the poison is removed, Laudanum to allay the irritation of the stomach; and cordials to sustain the system. No Antidote is known.

Potash (Caustic.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Acrid urinous taste in the mouth; great heat in the throat; nausea, and vomiting of bloody alkaline matter; acute pain in the stomach and bowels; convulsions and death.

Treatment

Vinegar and water, lemon juice and water should be taken in large quantities. Drink freely of gruel, milk, starch-water, weak broth.

Phosphorus

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Taken even in moderate quantities it produces death. Symptoms: violent pain in the stomach, with a hot oniony or garlicky taste in the mouth; great excitement of the system, and horrible convulsions.

Treatment

Drink, instantly, large quantities of water or milk. Take also, if obtainable, a tablespoonful or two of Magnesia mixed with water.

Soda (Caustic.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Symptoms similar to those of poison ing by Caustic Potash.

Treatment

The same as in poisoning by Caustic Potash.

Red Precipitate

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Symptoms similar to those of poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate.

Treatment

The same as in poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate.

Spirit Of Salt. (Muriatic Acid.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Sensation of burning in the throat and stomach;-harsh taste in the mouth; great thirst; eyes red and sparkling; pulse frequent and hard; skin hot and dry; tongue red and glazed; lips black; vomiting of blood and yellow matter, having the sharp odour of the Acid; cold sweats, delirium and death.

Treatment

Give, immediately, Calcined Magnesia, or soap and water, or give them mixed in gruel or starch water, or flour and water. Drink plentifully of the latter.

Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas

Symptoms Of Poisoning

In cases where the vapours are breathed in a concentrated state, the person is seized with sudden weakness, and all the signs of suspended animation or death. When the gas is weaker, two varieties of symptoms have been observed; the one consisting of pure insensibility, and the other of insensibility and tetanic convulsions.

Treatment

Get the patient as quickly as possible in the open air. Loosen his neck-cloth; then dash cold water over his head and face. Sometimes it may be necessary to abstract a little blood from the arm or from the head.

Tartar Emetic

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Nausea and severe vomiting; hiccough, a sensation of burning heat in the stomach; twisting colic; small, frequent, hard pulse; fainting; difficult breathing; giddiness; insensibility to external stimulants; painful cramps in the lower limbs; great prostration of strength, and death.

Treatment

Drink freely of milk-warm gruel, or milk, or starch water, or flour and water, as soon as it can possibly be obtained; the patient should take large doses of decoction of Peruvian Bark, and also of a tepid infusion of Nutgalls, which will decompose the poison, or Tannic or Gallic Acids.

Tin, (Muriate Or Chloride.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

A harsh, metallic taste; feeling of tightness about the throat; difficult breathing; violent vomiting; cramp of the stomach, and violent colicky pains; purging; pulse small, quick and sharp; convulsions, sometimes paralysis, insensibility, and death.

Treatment

Drink plentifully of milk, which appears to decompose the poison. Then clear the stomach by means of large draughts of milk-warm water. Afterwards drink frequently of gruel or linseed tea, or flour and water.

Vitriol (Sulphuric Acid.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

Harsh taste in the mouth; a burning pain in the throat, gullet and stomach; nausea, vomiting and a horrible foetor of the breath. The matter vomited is tinged with blood, and air-bubbles are formed on the spot, if any of it falls on chalk or marble. Symptoms of inflammation of the abdomen soon show themselves, with difficult breathing and a cough resembling croup; a frequent, small, irregular pulse; extreme anxiety and restlessness; convulsions of the face and lips, and sometimes an eruption precedes death.

Treatment

As quick as possible drink large quantities of milk and water mixed with Calcined Magnesia, chalk or whiting, or with soap or baking soda, or saleratus. If none of these are on hand, a lye may be made by pouring warm water on wood ashes and straining it off. A wineglassful of this, mixed with half a pint of milk, may be taken. After the Acid is decomposed, the patient may take white of eggs mixed with water, gruel, starch and water, flour and water or linseed tea.

White Vitriol (Sulphate Of Zinc.)

Symptoms Of Poisoning

A sharp taste in the mouth, with a sensation of choking; nausea and vomiting; frequent stools; pains in the stomach and bowels; difficult breathing; quick pulse; paleness-and shrinking of the features; coldness of the extremities. Death but rarely occurs, owing to the vomiting excited in the first instance by the poison.

Treatment

Drink freely of milk, which partially decomposes the poison and weakens its effects. Afterwards drink freely of gruel or flour and water, and weak broth. Clysters of gruel or oil, or linseed tea may afterwards be given.