Thapsia garganica, the root and the resin official in three countries. Thapsia, used in making a counter-irritant plaster.

Thea Sinensis, six countries. Tea.

Theobroma Cacao, Cacao beans, bitter chocolate, in a few countries. Cacao butter almost universally official.

Tilia Species, very generally official in Europe. Linden Flowers, tonic and nervine.

Trigonelia foenum-graecum, five countries. Fenugreek, used in ointments and plasters.

Triticum vulgare, several countries. Wheat flour and starch.

Tussilago farfara, nine countries. Coltsfoot, a simple demulcent.

Umbilicus pendulinus, Spain only. One of the Crassulaceae allied to the leek. No defined value.

Vaccinium myrtillus, five countries. Blueberry.

Vanilla planifolia, seven countries. Vanilla.

Vinca minor, France. Periwinkle, astringent.

Viola odorata, four countries. Violet flowers, a flavor. V. tricolor, or Pansy, in three countries, a mucilaginous demulcent.

Zyzyphus vulgaris, Spain only. Jujube Berries, a flavor.

Note. Above is data exclusively from national standards revised since 1900. Those of South America are not included, since no recent revisions have appeared. Several used above are seriously in need of revision in nomenclature or deletion. Many of these, as well as drugs and preparations official in the U. S. P. VIII but deleted from the U. S. P. IX, are listed in the N. F. IV. The botanic drugs listed in the National Formulary, Fourth Revision, are considered in this present volume quite in detail, but are not always credited to it, since they are in common use. A difficulty in crediting the N. F. lies in the fact that many drugs are official in the U. S. P., while certain preparations of the same drugs are N. F., not U. S. P. preparations.