This section is from the book "Botanic Drugs Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics", by Thomas S. Blair. Also available from Amazon: Botanic Drugs, Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Principally from Foreign Pharmacopeias.
Here are grouped together a complete list of the less prominent official botanic drugs, inclusive of a few in the U. S. P. Some drugs are placed in this secondary list because they are only of pharmaceutical interest.
It is not practicable to run them in alphabetic order except upon the basis of a purely botanical nomenclature, since official and common names vary in the several countries.
Most of the remedies in this group are unimportant, and hence little data need be given.
Acorus Calamus, the root and volatile oil of Calamus, an aromatic bitter widely official, but deleted from the U. S. P.
Adiantum, official in four countries. Our common Maiden-hair fern. A demulcent used in pectoral affections.
Aegle Marmelos, official in Great Britain as Bael Fruit. This is the Bengal quince, used in India in the treatment of diarrhea. It is a good astringent.
Aloysia Citriodora, leaves; Mexico and Spain. Flavoring agent, and a perfume. Known in America as Lemon Verbena. Makes a very fine perfume for ointments.
Alpina officinarum, official in eight standards. Galangal, a stimulant aromatic. One of the ancient remedies now going out of use.
Alsidium Helminthochortor. Official in France and Spain as Corsican Moss. An anthelmintic of uncertain action.
Alyxia Stellata, Netherlands. No data found.
Anacardium occidentale, Mexico and the Netherlands. Cashew leaves. A diuretic. The nuts are used in making marking or indelible ink and in homeopathic medicine in the treatment of nervous dyspepsia.
Anchusa Italica, official in Spain. Buglosse, used principally to flavor wine. Almost inert as a medicine.
Anogeissus Latifolia, Great Britain only. Indian Gum, a form of acacia.
Angelica Arciiangelica, official in France as Angelica leaves. The root is recognized in eight pharmacopeias. An aromatic tonic widely used as a condiment in Europe.
Antennaria dioica, Belgium and France. Similar to our native Life-everlasting. An astringent agent.
Arachis hypogaea, official in a few countries. Peanut Oil. Used pharmaceutically.
Arundo Donax. Spain. A species of bamboo. No defined medicinal activity. Used for splints, and the pith employed.
Asarum Europaenum, Switzerland only. An acrid plant, emetic and cathartic.
Asparagus officinalis, France, Mexico, and Spain. Asparagus root. A diuretic of some value.
Bidens pilosa, Netherlands only. One of the Compositiae resembling our burr marigold. Of no defined activity.
Bixa Orellana, Netherlands and Mexico. Used to color plasters much like saffron is used. Annatto is the name of the coloring substance derived from the seed.
Blumea balsamifera, Netherlands. Not defined botanically under this name. Plants of the species yield camphoraceous bodies.
Borrago officinalis, France, Mexico, and Spain. A mucilaginous plant known as Borage. A demulcent diaphoretic.
Boswellia species, official in eight countries. Olibanum, a stimulant gum resin similar to Peruvian balsam and used internally like tolu.
Brucea Sumatrana, Netherlands. Has a mild strychnine-like action similar to false angostora, as nearly as I can ascertain. Little data available.
Caesalpinia Sappan, British only. Used to color tinctures. Formerly used medicinally, but is inert. Resembles Brazil wood. A good coloring matter, however.
Calamintha officinalis, France only. An aromatic mint.
Calamus Draco, Mexico and Spain. Dragon's Blood, an astringent resin that makes a good protective varnish.
Callitris quadrivalvis, six countries. Sanda-rac Used as a varnish. Formerly used in plasters.
Canarium commune, seven countries. Elemi, a terebinthinate used in plasters and ointments in Europe.
Carum copticum, British only. Ajowan oil, contains thymol. Used largely in India.
Cerasus, France. Sweet and sour cherry fruit. Flavor.
Chichorium Intybus, three countries. Chicory, a mild tonic used as a substitute for and adulterant of coffee.
Cibotium Barometz, Austria only. Tartarian lamb, a species of fern growing west of the Volga, where the people believe it to be half animal and half plant. Wonderful tales are told of it. It is the joke of the Austrian pharmacopeia.
Citrus Bergania, the oil official in seven countries. Bergamot, an aromatic perfume used phar-maceutically.
Cnicus Benedictus, official in eight countries. Blessed Thistle, recommended in old literature for a host of conditions. Of no defined activity except emetic in large doses. The infusion is a mild tonic.
Cocos nucifera, Netherlands and Spain. Source of Cocoanut oil, used pharmaceutically.
Coffea Arabica, Mexico and Spain. Coffee. See "Caffeine."
Commiphora Africana, France and Spain. Bdellium. Resembles myrrh and is used in plasters.
Copernicia cerifera, Netherlands only. Car-nauba wax, used pharmaceutically.
Coptis Anemonaefolia, Japan only. A species of gold thread, a stomachic tonic.
Cotula aurea, Spain only. A Spanish species of chamomile.
Croton Eluteria, official in twelve countries. Cascarilla Bark, which has an action like calumba. An agreeable aromatic tonic irritant in large doses.
Its preparations are not very stable and it is being displaced by other agents.
Cuminum Cyminum, Belgium and Mexico. Cumin, a stimulating aromatic.
Cupressus Sempervirens, Mexico and Spain. Cypress, a terebinthinate. See "Abies."
Curcuma longa, four countries. Turmeric, a yellow coloring agent and condiment.
Curcuma Zedvaria, ten countries. Zedvary, a stimulating aromatic much inferior to ginger.
Cyclamen Europaenum, Spain only. Sow bread, our common greenhouse cyclamen, a drastic cathartic and dangerous abortifacient, used in homeopathic practice in the treatment of anemia. Strange to say, wild hogs are not poisoned by it; they eat it freely.
Cydonia vulgaris, Belgium, France, and Mexico. Quince and quince seed. Flavor and demulcent, respectively.
Cymbopogon Citratus, British only. Oil of Lemon grass, used pharmaceutically.
Cynanchum Vincetoxicum, France only. Swallow-wort. An irritating emetic agent.
Cynoglossum officinale, five countries. Hound's Tongue, a sedative demulcent.
Dorema Ammoniacum, widely official as Gum ammoniac. Similar in action to asafetida, but used as an expectorant in the form of an emulsion, that of the U. S. P. 1890 being given in 3^ to 1 fluidounce doses.
Dorstenia Braziliensis, Spain only. Contra-yerva, a stimulant, tonic, and diuretic.
Drimys Winteri, France and Mexico. Winter's Bark, a stimulant aromatic tonic. Was advocated as an iron-bearing tonic in a proprietary specialty. Contains a mere trace of iron.
Elaphrium tomentosum, Spain only. Tacama-haca, a terebinthinate used in ointments and plasters.
Elettaria Cardomomum, widely official. Carda-mon, a warm and grateful aromatic. The fruit is used in Europe, but the British and U. S. Pharmacopeias recognize only the seed. The U. S. P. IX tincture and compound tincture are made of the seed; the U. S. P. VIII preparations were made of the fruit and seed. Dose, 1 fluidrachm, or less as a flavor.
Embelia Ribes, British only. Used in India as an anthelmintic. Equisetum arvense, Austria and Hungary. Scouring Rush, used as a diuretic.
Erythrae Centanrium, widely official as Centaury, and E. Chilense in Spain only. A tonic resembling gentian.
Erythronium Dens-canis, Japan only. Adder's tongue starch. A plant similar to our dog's tooth violet, which is emetic. The starch is probably used pharmaceutically in Japan. No definite data available.
Fagus sylvatica, four countries. Beechwood.