This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
Antipyrine in is the form of whitish or grayish-white crystalline powder, slightly-bitter sweetish taste, and soluble in water. It combines with acids to form salts.
Antipyrine is a powerful antipyretic, local anaesthetic, disinfectant, hemostatic and stomachic tonic, and acts as an antiseptic in preventing fermentative changes in the intestines. It is also slightly hypnotic. It stimulates the secretions and readily diffuses into the blood. It first stimulates and then paralyzes the nerve-centres, dilates the cutaneous vessels, and increases the loss of heat by radiation, reducing the temperature rapidly. Sometimes it may cause dangerous symptoms, such as a feeble pulse, profuse diaphoresis and collapse. It is employed in typhoid and malarial fevers, pneumonia, phthisis, neuritis, sciatica, locomotor ataxis, neuralgia of the fifth pair of nerves associated with neuritis and sciatica, migraine, acute rheumatism, epilepsy, chorea, etc., and as a substitute for morphine, and in the morphine habit.
Its administration is soon followed by profuse perspiration, coldness of the surface, slowed pulse, depression, and if fever is present by lowered temperature within a half hour after taking the drug. In health its use may cause slight nausea, singing in the ears, and a slight decrease in the temperature of the body. It has no effect upon respiration, but acts as a sedative upon the brain. It is eliminated by the kidneys, appearing in the urine about three hours after ingestion.
Grs. v to grs. lx, being determined by its uses. Sub-cutaneouslv injected, it is very effective in painful affections originating in the nerves.
The hypodermic use of antipyrine has given very satisfactory results in the treatment of nervous articular and muscular pains, gastric affections, bronchial asthma, articular rheumatism, chronic lumbago. A painless injection may be made by half-filling a hypodermic syringe with a fifty per cent. solution of antipyrine, which will amount to about five and a half grains; then immerse the syringe into a ten per cent. solution of cocaine, drawing up enough of the cocaine into the syringe to make it about three-fourths full; this will amount to one-third grain of cocaine. The two solutions readily mix and do not decompose, and may be used as a local anaesthetic.
Antipyrine is used hypodermically with great success in cases of severe neuralgia of the fifth pair of nerves. Also, in cases of acute pericemental irritation, and in reflex neuroses of dental origin it has given great relief. Fifteen grains in half an ounce of water have given relief in a case of pericementitis, ceasing in twenty minutes with no return of the pain: but many prefer antifebrin (acetanilide) as being safer than antipyrine. It also has a marked effect in controlling hemorrhage from the gums and alveolar cavities when used as a hemostatic after the extraction of teeth. Prof. G. Cesari claims that antipyrine more or less speedily arrests hemorrhage from both large and small blood vessels when applied in solutions of not less than forty, or, better, fifty per cent. The solution as well as the powder should be applied on pledgets of cotton wool. Antipyrine has also been administered internally with satisfactory results in the treatment of periodontitis; and in cases where, owing to the severity of the symptoms in the same affection, the internal administration has proven unsuccessful, the hypodermic injection of fifteen grains has afforded relief; or the hypodermic injection followed in one half hour by the internal administration of fifteen grains of the drug will afford relief in cases of acute periodontitis.
Antipyrine has been successfully used for arresting hemorrhage after the extraction of teeth, as it has none of the disagreeable effects of perchloride of iron. It is applied on cotton.
For Nervous Cases.
Aq. destillat..............q.s. ad ft. sol.
Ft. sol et adde
Shake well and stand aside to allow salt to crystallize.
Dr. J. E. Davis.
Antipyrine (5 per cent.).........grs.xxiij
Cocaine (10 per cent.)..........grs.48
Glycerine . . ...........
Use with hypodermic syringe.